Table 2: Genes associated with sites differentially methylated in patients with fibromyalgia.

Gene name (abbreviation)Description of function1Location2

AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL)
Involved in stimulation of cell proliferation and aggregation; induced by TGF-β1/inflammation; and can block cytokine production 19: 41731934
N-Acetyltransferase 15 (NAT15) Histone acetyltransferase; mediates acetylation of free histone H4; also required for normal chromosomal segregation during anaphase16: 3507460
Solute carrier family 17, member 9 (SLC17A9)Vesicular nucleotide transporter involved in exocytosis of ATP in secretory vesicles (synaptic vesicles) 20: 61584072
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)Involved in the regulation of stress response and in the biology of mood disorders; major regulator of synaptic transmission and plasticity at adult synapses in many regions of the CNS; contributes to several adaptive neuronal responses including long-term potentiation, long-term depression, certain forms of short-term synaptic plasticity, and homeostatic regulation of intrinsic neuronal excitability11: 27740495
Mahogunin ring finger 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (MGRN1)Mediates monoubiquitination at multiple sites; plays a role in the regulation of endosome-to-lysosome trafficking. 16: 4714733
Plasma glutamate carboxypeptidase (PGCP)Involved in hydrolysis of circulating peptides 8: 97657294
Protein kinase C, alpha (PRKCA)Involved in diverse cell signaling pathways; activated by calcium; associated with cancer; posttraumatic stress syndrome; emotional memory formation; and aging 17: 64787379
Gamma-glutamyltransferase 1 (GGT1)Function not clear and may vary; has been associated with arterial stiffness and coronary artery disease [47]22: 24989248
Reticulon 1 (RTN1)Involved in secretion or membrane trafficking in neuroendocrine cells; associated with neurological diseases and cancer14: 60097209
NFXL1 nuclear transcription factor, X-box binding-like 1 (NFXL1)Integral to the nucleus and membrane4: 47917042
Heat shock 70 kDa protein 8 (HSPA8)Member of the heat shock protein family, functions as a chaperone and facilitates protein folding11: 122933028
Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIGR)Member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that facilitates expression of immunoglobulins A and M; regulated by cytokines1: 207103660
Benzodiazepine receptor (peripheral) associated protein 1 (BZRAP1)An adaptor molecule known to regulate synaptic transmission [48]17: 56401800
Transmembrane protein 91 (TMEM91)In vivo function not clearly established19: 41882253
Neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NR4A3)Target of β-andrenergic signaling in skeletal muscle [49]9: 102588232
V-set and immunoglobulin domain containing 10 (VSIG10)In vivo function not clearly established12: 118541722
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 7 (KCNH7)Involved in regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. 2: 163695111
V-set and transmembrane domain containing 2A (VSTM2A)In vivo function not clearly established7: 54609587
Ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EPHA2)Protein-tyrosine kinase family member; implicated in mediating developmental events, particularly in the nervous system. 1: 16482553
Patched 2 (PTCH2)A transmembrane receptor of the patched gene family; may function as a tumor suppressor in the hedgehog signaling pathway; has been associated with several different types of cancer1: 45297445
Histone deacetylase 4, (HDAC4)Responsible for the deacetylation of the core histones; gives tag for epigenetic repression; plays important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events; also involved in muscle maturation through interaction with the myocyte enhancer factors 2: 240044021
ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolase (ADPRH)Catalyzes removal of mono-ADP-ribose from arginine residues of proteins in the ADP-ribosylation cycle. 3: 119299162
Fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1 (zygin I) (FEZ1)Involved in normal axonal bundling and elongation within axon bundles; may also function in axonal outgrowth. 11: 125365478
Superoxide dismutase 3, extracellular (SOD3)Antioxidant enzyme thought to protect the brain, lungs, and other tissues from oxidative stress. 4: 24801801
Transcription factor AP-2 alpha 2 (TFAP2A)Transcription factor; activates the transcription of some genes while inhibiting the transcription of others6: 10420079
Odz, odd Oz/ten-m homolog 3 (ODZ3)May function as a cellular signal transducer4: 183370512
Ephrin type A receptor 5 (EPHA5)Mediates developmental events, particularly in the nervous system; plays a role in synaptic plasticity in adult brain through regulation of synaptogenesis; also mediates communication between pancreatic islet cells to regulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion 4: 66535145
Suppressor of fused homolog (Drosophila) (SUFU)Plays a role in pattern formation and cellular proliferation during development; encodes a negative regulator of the hedgehog signaling pathway 10: 104393081
Rh family, C glycoprotein (RHCG)Functions as an electroneutral and bidirectional ammonium transporter15: 90039613
DNAJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 17 (DNAJC17)Heat shock protein homolog15: 41062113
Autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2)Function not fully known; deletions of this gene have been associated with autism and intellectual disability7: 70158761
Deleted in lymphocytic leukemia, 7 (DLEU7)In vivo function not clearly established13: 51417846
SH2B adaptor protein 2 (SH2B2)Involved in multiple signaling pathways; may function as a negative regulator of cytokine signaling; suppresses PDGF-induced mitogenesis: may induce cytoskeletal reorganization via interaction with VAV37: 101934892
Alpha-kinase 3 (ALPK3)Recognizes phosphorylation sites (alpha-helical conformation); may play a role in cardiomyocyte differentiation 15: 85360691
VENT homeobox (VENTX)May function as a transcriptional repressor and influence mesodermal patterning and hemopoietic stem cell maintenance10: 135050326
Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G5C (LY6G5C)Located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on chromosome 6; may be involved in signal transduction or hematopoietic cell differentiation6: 31649619
Primary ciliary dyskinesia protein 1 (PCDP1)May function in ciliary motility2: 120301847
Protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type I (PRKG1)Involved in signal transduction processes in diverse cell types; plays role in regulating cardiovascular and neuronal functions and in relaxing smooth muscle tone, preventing platelet aggregation, and modulating cell growth10: 52833610
MAP7 domain containing 2 (MAP7D2)X-linked imprinted gene that may affect sex-specific brain function and/or sex-dependent neurobiological traits [50] X: 20134719
Carboxypeptidase M (CPM)Associated with monocyte to macrophage differentiation; may play role in control of peptide hormone and growth factor activity at the cell surface and in the membrane-localized degradation of extracellular proteins12: 69346994
Growth differentiation factor 1 (GDF1)/LAG1 longevity assurance homolog 1 (LASS1)Member of TGF-beta superfamily; may function in regulation of cell growth and differentiation in embryonic and adult tissues and neural development in later embryogenesis; may be involved in aging 19: 18981378
Ubiquitin-like, containing PHD and RING finger domains, 1 (UHRF1)Recruits a histone deacetylase to regulate gene expression; involved in G1/S transition and functions in the p53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint19: 4916593
Anoctamin 3 (AN03) May act as a calcium-activated chloride channel11: 26353723
Homeobox protein Hox-A7 (HOXA7)DNA-binding transcription factor that may regulate gene expression, morphogenesis, and differentiation7: 27196790
Transmembrane protein 44 (TMEM44)Enriched in the bottom portion of taste buds3: 194353554
Potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1)Voltage-gated potassium channel required for repolarization phase of the cardiac action potential; mutations associated with hereditary long QT syndrome 1, the Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, and familial atrial fibrillation; exhibits tissue-specific imprinting; located in a region associated with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome11: 2554583
Polymerase I and transcript release factor 1 (PTRF)Regulates rRNA transcription; thought to modify
lipid metabolism and insulin-regulated gene expression
17: 40558063

Functional descriptions obtained from Gene Cards and/or Wikipedia summations and indicated references.
2Chromosome: starting nucleotide position.