Organic Chemistry International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activities of N-(Heteroaryl-substituted)-p-toluenesulphonamides Tue, 15 Apr 2014 08:13:37 +0000 A new class of N-(heteroaryl-substituted)-p-toluenesulphonamides has been synthesized exhibiting antibacterial and antifungal properties. The condensation reaction of p-toluenesulphonyl chloride 1 with appropriate substituted amino pyridines 2a–g in acetone furnished N-(heteroaryl-substituted)-p-toluenesulphonamides 3a–g. These derivatives were characterized by IR, 1H-, and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and were screened in vitro against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, and fungi organisms using agar-diffusion method. Results indicated improved biological activities over reference drugs such as Tetracycline (TCN) and Fluconazole (FLU). Ozoh Chinwe Francisca, Okoro Uchechukwu Chris, and Ugwu David Izuchukwu Copyright © 2014 Ozoh Chinwe Francisca et al. All rights reserved. An Efficient Method for Synthesis of N-tert-Butyl Amides Using Oxalic Acid Dihydrate in Solvent-Free Condition Tue, 08 Apr 2014 07:04:06 +0000 An efficient method for the synthesis of N-tert-butyl amides by reaction of nitriles with tert-butyl acetate or tert-butanol is described using oxalic acid dihydrate in solvent-free condition. The result showed that tert-butyl acetate served as a relatively better source of tert-butyl carbocation than tert-butanol. Masoud Mokhtary and Seyedeh Khadijeh Nasernezhad Copyright © 2014 Masoud Mokhtary and Seyedeh Khadijeh Nasernezhad. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 4-(3-Hydroxy-benzofuran-2-yl)coumarins Thu, 27 Mar 2014 08:25:33 +0000 Various 4-bromomethylcoumarins (1a-k) were reacted with methyl salicylate to yield 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-ylmethoxy)-benzoic acid methyl esters (2a-k). Formations of (3a-k) were achieved by using DBU under microwave irradiation. Structures of all the compounds were established on the basis of their spectral data. All the compounds were tested in vitro for their antimicrobial activity and cell cytotoxicity. All the tested compounds (2b-k) and (3a-k) were shown to be better activity against Staphylococcus aureus than the standard Ciprofloxacin. The compound (3k) (R = 6-OMe) was found to be more potent cytotoxic than the standard 5-fluorouracil. Puttaraju Boregowda, Shivashankar Kalegowda, Vijaykumar Pandurang Rasal, Jagadeeshreddy Eluru, and Ebenezer Koyye Copyright © 2014 Puttaraju Boregowda et al. All rights reserved. Microwave Assisted Solvent-Free Synthesis of Some Imine Derivatives Wed, 26 Mar 2014 12:00:46 +0000 Some imine derivatives (1a–7d) were synthesized using a rapid and an environmentally friendly method with reaction of aromatic aldehydes (a–d) and aromatic amines (1–7) (in 1 : 1 molar ratio) in the presence of -ethoxyethanol as a wetting reagent (2 drops) under solvent-free conditions using microwave heating. Yunus Bekdemir and Kürşat Efil Copyright © 2014 Yunus Bekdemir and Kürşat Efil. All rights reserved. Synthesis of N-Alkyl-2-thiomethyl Benzimidazoles: A Green Approach Mon, 17 Mar 2014 13:06:20 +0000 A green approach for the synthesis of N-alkyl-2-thiomethyl benzimidazoles 2 (R=CH3, C2H5, CH2Ph) under different conditions has been developed from N-alkyl-2-chloromethyl benzimidazole (i.e., CH3, C2H5, CH2Ph) 1 by reaction with thiourea by physical grinding, or by using green solvents like ethanol and PEG-600, or by using microwave irradiation technique. S. Srinivas Rao, Ch. Venkata Ramana Reddy, and P. K. Dubey Copyright © 2014 S. Srinivas Rao et al. All rights reserved. An Efficient One-Pot Multi-Component Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidin-2-(1H)-Ones/Thiones Catalyzed by Bismuth (III) Sulfate Trihydrate under Solvent-Free Conditions Thu, 13 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A convenient and efficient protocol for the one-pot synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2-(1H)-one/thione derivatives of aldehydes, and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with Bismuth (III) sulfate trihydrate as the catalyst was described. We had the advantages of good performance, simplicity, and short time reaction under solvent-free conditions. The catalyst can be repeatedly reused without loss of its activity. Farhad Hatamjafari Copyright © 2014 Farhad Hatamjafari. All rights reserved. Catalytic Synthesis of -Aminonitriles Using Nano Copper Ferrite under Green Conditions Wed, 12 Mar 2014 15:39:38 +0000 Copper ferrite nanomaterial as reusable heterogeneous initiator in the synthesis of α-aminonitriles. The nanocatalyst is easily recovered and its reusability is recorded. Synthesis of α-aminonitriles derivatives by one-pot reaction of different aldehydes with amines and trimethylsilyl cyanides has been developed using nano copper ferrite catalyst under room temperature and green solvent (water as solvent) conditions. α-aminonitriles are important in preparing a wide variety of amino acids, amides, diamines, and nitrogen containing heterocycles. Ali Gharib, Nader Noroozi Pesyan, Leila Vojdani Fard, and Mina Roshani Copyright © 2014 Ali Gharib et al. All rights reserved. One-Pot Synthesis of Metallopyrazinoporphyrazines Using 2,3-Diaminomaleonitrile and 1,2-Dicarbonyl Compounds Accelerated by Microwave Irradiation Thu, 27 Feb 2014 13:20:32 +0000 A one-pot microwave-assisted synthesis of metallopyrazinoporphyrazines as porphyrazine derivatives carrying six-membered pyrazine rings annulated at the periphery of the tetrapyrrolic macrocycle is described starting from 2,3-diaminomaleonitrile, 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds, metal salts, and urea. Ali Maleki and Ali Hossein Rezayan Copyright © 2014 Ali Maleki and Ali Hossein Rezayan. All rights reserved. In Quest of “Stereoselective Switch” for On-Water Hydrothiolation of Terminal Alkynes Using Different Additives and Green Synthesis of Vicinal Dithioethers Thu, 13 Feb 2014 16:02:51 +0000 On-water hydrothiolation reaction between terminal alkyne and thiol has been probed in the presence of various additives. Aromatic alkynes yield corresponding 1-alkenyl sulfides, whereas aliphatic alkynes undergo double-addition yielding vicinal disulfides in good to excellent yields. Formation of 1-alkenyl sulfides proceeds with a high degree of regioselectivity (via anti-Markovnikov addition), and switching the stereoselectivity between E/Z isomers has been noticeably realized in the presence of different additives/promoters. Basudeb Basu, Kinkar Biswas, Samir Kundu, and Debasish Sengupta Copyright © 2014 Basudeb Basu et al. All rights reserved. Green Chemistry: New Synthesis of Substituted Chromenes and Benzochromenes via Three-Component Reaction Utilizing Rochelle Salt as Novel Green Catalyst Thu, 30 Jan 2014 09:17:51 +0000 Substituted 2-amino-4-aryl-7-hydroxy-4H-chromene-3-carbonitriles (6), 2-amino-4-aryl-4H-benzo[h]chromene-3-carbonitriles (7), and 3-amino-1-aryl-1H-benzo[f]chromenes-2-carbonitriles (8) were prepared, in good yields, via one-pot three-component reactions of aromatic aldehydes (1), malononitrile (2), and resorcinol (3) or α-naphthol (4) or β-naphthol (5) in refluxing ethanol or water in the presence of Rochelle salt as novel green heterogeneous and reusable catalyst. Awatef Mohamed El-Maghraby Copyright © 2014 Awatef Mohamed El-Maghraby. All rights reserved. An Efficient and Green Method for Synthesis of 2,4,5-Triarylimidazoles without Use of Any Solvent, Catalyst, or Solid Surface Tue, 10 Dec 2013 11:23:55 +0000 An efficient and green method for synthesis of 2,4,5-triarylimidazoles without use of any catalyst or solvent has been developed simply by heating (at 130°C) of mixtures of 1,2-diketone, aromatic aldehyde, and ammonium acetate in 1 : 1 : 3 mole ratio. Swati Samanta, Saheli Sarkar, Rammohan Pal, and Asok K. Mallik Copyright © 2013 Swati Samanta et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Pyrazine Substituted 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Derivatives and Their Anticonvulsant Activity Wed, 04 Dec 2013 10:14:46 +0000 The synthesis of new pyrazine substituted 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives was carried out in good yield by the reaction of pyrazine substituted 1,3,4-thiadiazoles with various sulfonyl chlorides. A chemical structure of all the new compounds was confirmed by 1H NMR and mass spectral data. The new compounds were screened for their anticonvulsant activity against maximal electroshock (MES) seizure method. Rotarod method was employed to determine the neurotoxicity. Few compounds showed significant changes in anticonvulsant activity. The same compounds showed no neurotoxicity at the maximum dose administered (100 mg/kg). Kikkeri P. Harish, Kikkeri N. Mohana, and Lingappa Mallesha Copyright © 2013 Kikkeri P. Harish et al. All rights reserved. Accuracy and Applicability of the New Exchange Correlation Functionals for Reproduction of the Infrared Spectra of Butyl Acrylate and Butyl Methacrylate Molecules Wed, 09 Oct 2013 14:02:41 +0000 The butyl acrylate and butyl methacrylate were optimized by seven functionals. All the structures found are local minima and belong to the Cs symmetry. The calculated frequencies are scaled and ranked according to their square errors. The scaling factors of the B972 and B98 functionals fail to reproduce the infrared spectra. The calculated and scaled frequencies with G96LYP, OLYP, and HCTH functionals give acceptable correlations with the experimental spectra. The scaling factors for O3LYP/6-31G(f,p) and O3LYP/6-311+G(df,p) levels of theory reproduce very well the infrared spectrum of butyl acrylate, and the scaled frequencies at VSXC functional with Pople’s double zeta basis sets show the best accuracy in the case of butyl methacrylate. O. Belaidi, T. Bouchaour, and U. Maschke Copyright © 2013 O. Belaidi et al. All rights reserved. Utility of Activated Nitriles in the Synthesis of Novel Heterocyclic Compounds with Antitumor Activity Thu, 03 Oct 2013 14:43:01 +0000 Reaction of cyanoacetic acid hydrazide (1) with 4-methoxyacetophenone and 4-chlorobenzaldehyde (2a,b) afforded the corresponding 2-cyanoacetohydrazide derivatives (3a,b) respectively. The latter compounds were utilized as a key intermediate for the synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds. Newly synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analyses and spectral data. The antitumor evaluation of some newly synthesized compounds was screened in vitro against human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Asmaa S. Salman Copyright © 2013 Asmaa S. Salman. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Bis-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones and 2,3-Dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones Derivatives with the Aid of Silica-Supported Preyssler Nanoparticles Wed, 11 Sep 2013 09:44:26 +0000 One-pot three-component condensation of isatoic anhydride with primary amines or ammonium carbonate and aromatic aldehydes in refluxing ethanol in the presence of catalytic amounts of silica-supported preyssler nanoparticles (SPNP) afforded the corresponding 2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones in high yields, and bis-dihydroquinazolinones were synthesized for the first time by a novel pseudo-five-component condensation of isatoic anhydride, a primary amine, and a dialdehyde in water. The catalyst is reusable and can be applied several times without any decrease in product yield. Ali Gharib, Bibi Robabeh Hashemipour Khorasani, Manouchehr Jahangir, Mina Roshani, and Reza Safaee Copyright © 2013 Ali Gharib et al. All rights reserved. Novel ZrOCl2·8H2O-Catalysed One-Pot Multicomponent Synthesis of 9,10-Dihydro-8H-benzo[a]xanthen-11(12H)-one Derivatives Tue, 10 Sep 2013 11:26:32 +0000 A simple and efficient protocol for the synthesis of highly substituted xanthenes is developed through the condensation of β-naphthol, aldehydes, and cyclic 5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione with zirconium oxychloride octahydrate as a catalyst via multicomponent condensation strategy. The present method gives good to excellent yields of substituted 9,10-dihydro-8H-benzo[a]xanthen-11(12H)-one derivatives. Mohammad Reza Poor Heravi, Mahsa Ahmadinejad, Bakhshali Masoumi, and Kamelia Nejati Copyright © 2013 Mohammad Reza Poor Heravi et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of 5-Phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-amine Incorporated Azo Dye Derivatives Sun, 18 Aug 2013 09:15:10 +0000 5-Phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-amine has been synthesized by single step reaction. A series of heterocyclic azodyes were synthesized by diazotisation of 5-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-amine by nitrosyl sulphuric acid followed by coupling with different coupling compounds such as 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2,6-diaminopyridine, 2-naphthol, N,N-dimethyl aniline, resorcinol, and 4,6-dihydroxypyrimidine. The dyes were characterized by UV-Vis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were also screened for biological activity. Chinnagiri T. Keerthi Kumar, Jathi Keshavayya, Tantry N. Rajesh, Sanehalli K. Peethambar, and Angadi R. Shoukat Ali Copyright © 2013 Chinnagiri T. Keerthi Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Catalytic Synthesis of 3-Methyl-1-phenyl-1H-benzo[g]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline-5,10-dione Derivatives Using Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles as Heterogeneous Catalyst in Green Conditions Tue, 06 Aug 2013 12:15:51 +0000 We have developed a new methodology for the synthesis of 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-benzo[g]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline-5,10-dione derivatives in excellent yields. A new green chemistry protocol with the reusability of the nanoparticle as catalyst has been developed for the synthesis of 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-benzo[g]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline-5,10-dione derivatives via one-pot reaction of 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-amine, arylaldehydes, and 2-hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-dione in water as green solvent and using cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) as heterogeneous catalyst. The present methodology affords several advantages such as simple procedure, excellent yields, and short reaction time. The catalyst is inexpensive, stable, easily recycled, and reused for several cycles with consistent activity. Ali Gharib, Bibi Robabeh Hashemipour Khorasani, Manouchehr Jahangir, Mina Roshani, and Reza Safaee Copyright © 2013 Ali Gharib et al. All rights reserved. Green Chemical Synthesis and Analgesic Activity of Fluorinated Thiazolidinone, Pyrazolidinone, and Dioxanedione Derivatives Sun, 21 Jul 2013 11:06:58 +0000 Facile lemon juice catalyzed green and efficient synthesis of a series of new classes of 5-(fluorinatedbenzylidene)-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones (3a–e), 5-methyl-4-(fluorinatedbenzylidene)-2-phenylpyrazolidin-3-ones (5a–e), and 2,2-dimethyl-5-(fluorinatedbenzylidene)-1,3-dioxane-4,6-diones (7a–e) by the reaction of fluorinated aromatic aldehydes with active methylene compounds is reported. Lemon juice is natural acid catalyst which is readily available, cheap, nontoxic, and ecofriendly. This method is experimentally simple, clean, high yielding, green, and with reduced reaction times. The product is purified by simple filtration followed by washing with water and drying process. Some of the synthesized compounds have been evaluated “in vivo” for their analgesic activity and all the synthesized compounds are characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 19F NMR, and mass spectral studies. Harshita Sachdeva, Diksha Dwivedi, and Pradeep Goyal Copyright © 2013 Harshita Sachdeva et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of 4-(2-Hydroxy-5-(aryl-diazenyl)phenyl)-6-(aryl)pyrimidin-2-ols Derivatives Mon, 01 Jul 2013 14:35:34 +0000 With the aim of synthesizing new heterocyclic compounds and exploring biological potency, new series of chalcones, that is, 3-(2-hydroxy-5-(aryl-diazenyl)phenyl)-1-(aryl)prop-2-en-1-one and their pyrimidine derivatives, that is, 4-(2-hydroxy-5-(aryl-diazenyl)phenyl)-6-(aryl)pyrimidin-2-ols were synthesized using different aromatic amines and salicylaldehyde as starting moieties. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were confirmed using different spectroscopic techniques such as IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral analysis, and elemental analysis. The newly synthesized pyrimidines derivatives were screened for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities. It was observed that some of the newly synthesized compounds had shown promising activity against several bacterial and fungal stains. Anti-bacterial activity and anti-fungal activity studies revealed that pyrimidine derivatives consisting of nitro group in their molecular structure possess better activity than their corresponding chalcones. Chandrashekhar P. Pandhurnekar, Ekta M. Meshram, Himani N. Chopde, and Rameshkumar J. Batra Copyright © 2013 Chandrashekhar P. Pandhurnekar et al. All rights reserved. Catalytic Synthesis of Pyrano- and Furoquinolines Using Nano Silica Chromic Acid at Room Temperature Mon, 17 Jun 2013 10:15:44 +0000 Nano silica chromic acid (nano-SCA) is found to catalyze efficiently the three component-coupling reactions of aldehydes, amines, and cyclic enol ethers such as 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran and 2,3-dihydrofuran under mild conditions to afford the corresponding pyrano- and furanoquinolines in excellent yields with high endoselectivity. Interestingly, 2,3-dihydrofuran afforded selectively endoproducts under the similar reaction conditions. Heterogeneous reaction conditions, easy procedure, short reaction time, and high yields are some important advantages of this method. Ali Gharib and Manouchehr Jahangir Copyright © 2013 Ali Gharib and Manouchehr Jahangir. All rights reserved. Molecular Structure and Vibrational Spectra of 2-Ethylhexyl Acrylate by Density Functional Theory Calculations Sun, 02 Jun 2013 09:24:11 +0000 The Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate have been measured in liquid phase. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, and infrared intensities have been calculated by using density functional theory. We found two local minima representing s-cis and s-trans conformations for 2-ethylhexyl acrylate molecule. The optimized geometries at DFT//B3LYP/6-311+ are in good agreement with electron diffraction data of methyl acrylate for the acrylic group. The two conformers were used for the interpretation of the experimental infrared spectrum of title compound. PED calculations are represented for a more complete and concise assignment. There is one band in the infrared spectrum at 1646 cm−1 that definitely indicates the conformer with s-trans arrangement of acrylic moiety to be present or not in the liquid 2-ethylhexyl acrylate. Ottman Belaidi, Tewfik Bouchaour, and Ulrich Maschke Copyright © 2013 Ottman Belaidi et al. All rights reserved. Environ-Economic Synthesis and Characterization of Some New 1,2,4-Triazole Derivatives as Organic Fluorescent Materials and Potent Fungicidal Agents Sun, 12 May 2013 10:51:03 +0000 A multicomponent one-pot clean cyclocondensation reaction of 4-chloro-2-nitro aniline/amino acids and aromatic aldehydes/indole-2,3-diones with thiosemicarbazide in water yielding triazole/spiro indole-triazole derivatives in high yields and shorter reaction time and displaying excellent florescent property is reported. The developed MCR may provide a valuable practical tool for the synthesis of new drugs containing the title core fragment. All the newly synthesized compounds have been characterized by IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, and fluorescence study and also been screened for antimicrobial activity. Harshita Sachdeva, Rekha Saroj, Sarita Khaturia, and Diksha Dwivedi Copyright © 2013 Harshita Sachdeva et al. All rights reserved. Regioselective and Chemoselective Reduction of ,-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds by /Ba as a Reducing System Thu, 02 May 2013 13:49:04 +0000 ,-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones are regioselectively reduced to the corresponding allylic alcohols with /Ba system in CH3CN. This system is also efficient for the chemoselective reduction of enals in the presence of enones at room temperature. Mina Mohamadi, Davood Setamdideh, and Behrooz Khezri Copyright © 2013 Mina Mohamadi et al. All rights reserved. Benzo[1,5]thiazepine: Synthesis, Reactions, Spectroscopy, and Applications Sun, 17 Mar 2013 17:02:55 +0000 This review article deals with synthesis and reactions of benzo[1,5]thiazepines and the related derivatives and their applications, biological activity as well as spectroscopic data. Most of the reported data on the methods of synthesis, chemical reactions, and biological activity of these heterocycles published over the last ten years are reviewed in this paper. Khairy A. M. El-Bayouki Copyright © 2013 Khairy A. M. El-Bayouki. All rights reserved. Microwave-Assisted Extraction Studies of Target Analyte Artemisinin from Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua L. Thu, 14 Mar 2013 19:13:18 +0000 Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) is an annual herb native of Asia. This plant has been used for many centuries in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of fever and malaria. Conventional methods for the extraction of artemisinin from A. annua including solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and heat reflux extraction are characterized by long extraction times and the consumption of large volume of solvents. A simple, rapid, and precise microwave-assisted extraction process was optimized for fast sample preparation for the faster quantitative determination of artemisinin, potential new generation antimalarial drug, from dried leaves of Artemisia annua L. A simple experiment was designed for the optimization of the appropriate solvent under same extraction conditions. The selected appropriate solvent was then standardized for various different extraction variables. The major parameters studied showed effects on extraction efficiency including processing time, strength of microwave, moisture content, volume and nature of the solvent. The most favorable conditions were obtained by using plant material of 25 mesh (particle size) extracted with acetone for 120 seconds at 160 W (i.e., 20% of total power). Quantitative analysis was performed using thin-layer chromatography coupled with a densitometer (TLC densitometry). The results showed that MAE can be used as an efficient and rapid method for the extraction of the active components from plants. Himanshu Misra, Darshana Mehta, B. K. Mehta, and D. C. Jain Copyright © 2013 Himanshu Misra et al. All rights reserved. Physicochemical Mechanisms of Synergistic Biological Action of Combinations of Aromatic Heterocyclic Compounds Thu, 14 Feb 2013 17:49:23 +0000 The mechanisms of synergistic biological effects observed in the simultaneous use of aromatic heterocyclic compounds in combination are reviewed, and the specific biological role of heteroassociation of aromatic molecules is discussed. Maxim P. Evstigneev Copyright © 2013 Maxim P. Evstigneev. All rights reserved. Rapid and Efficient Synthesis of Hydroxytriarylmethanes under Ultra Sonic Irradiation Using Keggin Heteropolyacids and Preyssler Catalysts in Green Conditions Thu, 03 Jan 2013 11:19:43 +0000 A new synthesis of hydroxytriarylmethane derived from the reaction of 2-sulfobenzoic anhydride and phenols in the presence of heteropolyacids as green, reusable, and efficient catalyst (using catalytic amount) under ultrasonic irradiation is reported in this paper. Hooshang Hamidian Copyright © 2013 Hooshang Hamidian. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Diamides and Diimines Derived from 4,4′-(1,3-Phenylenebis(oxy))dianiline, Units for Symmetrical Macrocycles Mon, 31 Dec 2012 12:52:48 +0000 4,4′-(1,3-Phenylenebis(oxy))dianiline 1 is an aromatic diamine compound and has been very less utilized in the organic synthesis. Different diimines and diamides were synthesized by reacting compound 1 with aromatic and heterocyclic compounds having different functionalities. These longer electron rich spacer molecules were synthesized to utilize them in the near future in making macrocycles of different sizes and functionalities. A hydrazide was also prepared from a diamide spacer molecule containing ester group. A diamide prepared containing nibrobenzene moiety was further reduced to amine to obtain longer spacer diamine molecule than the starting molecule 1. Said Nadeem, Muhammad R. Shah, Kiramat Shah, Akhtar Mohammad, and Burhan Khan Copyright © 2012 Said Nadeem et al. All rights reserved. An Expeditious and Safe Synthesis of Some Exocyclic α,β-Unsaturated Ketones by Microwave-Assisted Condensation of Cyclic Ketones with Aromatic Aldehydes over Anhydrous Potassium Carbonate Sun, 23 Dec 2012 17:52:06 +0000 A rapid, efficient, and solvent-free methodology for synthesis of exocyclic α,β-unsaturated ketones of the categories E-3-arylidene-4-chromanones, E-2-arylidene-1-tetralones, E-2-arylidene-1-indanones, E-3-cinnamylidene-4-chromanones, E-2-cinnamylidene-1-tetralones, E-2-cinnamylidene-1-indanones, α,α′-(E,E)-bis(arylidene)-cycloalkanones, and α,α′-(E,E)-bis(cinnamylidene)-cycloalkanones has been developed through cross-aldol condensation of the constituent cyclic ketones and aldehydes by microwave irradiation over anhydrous potassium carbonate. However, for condensation of 1-thio-4-chromanones with aromatic aldehydes by this method, the initially formed exocyclic α,β-unsaturated ketone has been found to undergo isomerization yielding 3-(arylmethyl)thiochromones. Rina Mondal, Tapas K. Mandal, and Asok K. Mallik Copyright © 2012 Rina Mondal et al. All rights reserved.