About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Obstetrics and Gynecology International
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 585269, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/585269
Research Article

The Effect of Acid-Reducing Pharmacotherapy on the Severity of Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

1The Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8
2Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 1A8

Received 1 October 2008; Revised 25 March 2009; Accepted 12 May 2009

Academic Editor: William A. Grobman

Copyright © 2009 Simerpal Kaur Gill et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. F. Miller, “Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: the problem of perception—is it really a disease?” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 186, no. 5, pp. S182–S183, 2002.
  2. C. L. Attard, M. A. Kohli, S. Coleman, et al., “The burden of illness of severe nausea and vomiting of pregnancy in the United States,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 186, no. 5, pp. S220–S227, 2002.
  3. C. Louik, S. Hernandez-Diaz, M. M. Werler, and A. A. Mitchell, “Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: maternal characteristics and risk factors,” Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 270–278, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. T. H. Baron, B. Ramirez, and J. E. Richter, “Gastrointestinal motility disorders during pregnancy,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 118, no. 5, pp. 366–375, 1993.
  5. R. A. R. Ali and L. J. Egan, “Gastroesophageal reflux disease in pregnancy,” Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 793–806, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. B. Geeraerts and J. Tack, “Functional dyspepsia: past, present, and future,” Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 251–255, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. R. Tutuian and D. O. Castell, “Management of gastroesophageal reflux disease,” American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 326, no. 5, pp. 309–318, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. R. S. Fisher, G. S. Roberts, C. J. Grabowski, and S. Cohen, “Inhibition of lower esophageal sphincter circular muscle by female sex hormones,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 234, no. 3, pp. E243–E247, 1978.
  9. S. K. Gill, C. Maltepe, and G. Koren, “The effect of heartburn and acid reflux on the severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy,” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 270–272, 2009.
  10. A. Einarson, C. Maltepe, R. Boskovic, and G. Koren, “Treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: an updated algorithm,” Canadian Family Physician, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 2109–2111, 2007.
  11. G. Koren, R. Boskovic, M. Hard, C. Maltepe, Y. Navioz, and A. Einarson, “Motherisk—PUQE (pregnancy-unique quantification of emesis and nausea) scoring system for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 186, no. 5, pp. S228–S231, 2002.
  12. G. Koren, C. Piwko, E. Ahn, et al., “Validation studies of the Pregnancy Unique-Quantification of Emesis (PUQE) scores,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 241–244, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. E. Rey, F. Rodriguez-Artalejo, M. A. Herraiz, et al., “Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms during and after pregnancy: a longitudinal study,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 102, no. 11, pp. 2395–2400, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. H. Garbis, E. Elefant, O. Diav-Citrin, et al., “Pregnancy outcome after exposure to ranitidine and other H2-blockers: a collaborative study of the European Network of Teratology Information Services,” Reproductive Toxicology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 453–458, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. L. A. Magee, G. Inocencion, L. Kamboj, F. Rosetti, and G. Koren, “Safety of first trimester exposure to histamine H2 blockers. A prospective cohort study,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1145–1149, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. A. Ruigómez, L. A. García Rodríguez, C. Cattaruzzi, et al., “Use of cimetidine, omeprazole, and ranitidine in pregnant women and pregnancy outcomes,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 150, no. 5, pp. 476–481, 1999.
  17. I. Matok, R. Gorodischer, G. Koren, and A. Levy, “The safety of intrauterine exposure to H2-blockers: a study by linking computerized databases,” in Proceedings of the 11th Congress of the European Society for Developmental Pharmacology, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, June 2008, abstract no. 45.
  18. D. G. Colin Jones, M. J. S. Langman, D. H. Lawson, and M. P. Vessey, “Post-marketing surveillance of the safety of cimetidine: twelve-month morbidity report,” Quarterly Journal of Medicine, vol. 54, no. 215, pp. 253–268, 1985.
  19. B. Kallen, “Delivery outcome after the use of acid-suppressing drugs in early pregnancy with special reference to omeprazole,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 105, no. 8, pp. 877–881, 1998.
  20. A. Lalkin, R. Loebstein, A. Addis, et al., “The safety of omeprazole during pregnancy: a multicenter prospective controlled study,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 179, no. 3, pp. 727–730, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. G. Koren and D. M. Zemlickis, “Outcome of pregnancy after first trimester exposure to H2 receptor antagonists,” American Journal of Perinatology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 37–38, 1991.
  22. J. D. Larson, E. Patatanian, P. B. Miner Jr., W. F. Rayburn, and M. G. Robinson, “Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of ranitidine for gastroesophageal reflux symptoms during pregnancy,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 83–87, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. G. L. Nielsen, H. T. Sørensen, A. M. Thulstrup, U. Tage-Jensen, C. Olesen, and A. Ekbom, “The safety of proton pump inhibitors in pregnancy,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1085–1089, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. S. K. Gill, L. O’Brien, T. R. Einarson, and G. Koren, “The safety of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in pregnancy: a meta-analysis,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 104, no. 6, pp. 1541–1545, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. O. Diav-Citrin, J. Arnon, S. Shechtman, et al., “The safety of proton pump inhibitors in pregnancy: a multicentre prospective controlled study,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 269–275, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. I. Matok, R. Gorodischer, G. Koren, and A. Levy, “The safety of intrauterine exposure to proton pump inhibitors during the first trimester of pregnancy,” in Proceedings of the 9th World Conference on Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Quebec, Canada, July 2008, abstract no. T3T124.
  27. B. A. J. Källén, “Use of omeprazole during pregnancy—no hazard demonstrated in 955 infants exposed during pregnancy,” European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 63–68, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. S. Nikfar, M. Abdollahi, M. E. Moretti, L. A. Magee, and G. Koren, “Use of proton pump inhibitors during pregnancy and rates of major malformations: a meta-analysis,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1526–1529, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar