Table 2: Controversies in uterine carcinosarcoma.

(i) Origins: sarcomatous versus carcinomatous monoclonal versus biclonal versus polyclonal.
(ii) Demographics: more common in Afro-American versus Caucasian women.
(iii) Aetiology: radiation inducible tumour versus metaplastic versus dedifferentiation versus common stem cell.
(iv) Pathogenesis: collision theory versus combination theory versus conversion theory.
(v) Risk factors: beneficial effect of oral contraceptives versus detrimental effect of exogenous estrogens.
(vi) Presentation: symptomatic (pyometra/vaginal bleeding/abdominal pain) versus asymptomatic.
(vii) Microscopic: biphasic components—separated versus merged.
(viii) MRI description: endophytic with architectural obliteration versus exophytic with no invasiveness.
(ix) Sonography: diagnostic use—yes versus no technique—transabdominal versus transvaginal.
(x) Surgery: lymphadenectomy versus nolymph-node dissection.
(xi) Adjuvant therapy: radiotherapy versus chemotherapy versus molecular targeted versus multimodality therapy.
(xii) Radiotherapy: locoregional control versus improved overall survival limited pelvic radiation versus whole abdominal radiation.
(xiii) Chemotherapy: single-agent versus combination versus targeted antineoplastic therapy.
(xiv) Prognostic features: ?significance of tumour size, patient age, and histology of sarcomatous element.