About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Obstetrics and Gynecology International
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 719059, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/719059
Clinical Study

Endometriosis Gene Expression Heterogeneity and Biosignature: A Phylogenetic Analysis

1Laboratory of Immunology, Section of Immunopathology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
2Department of Biochemistry and Cellular & Molecular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20007, USA
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC 20007, USA
4Armidale Rural Referral Hospital, University of New England and The University of Newcastle, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia

Received 13 July 2011; Accepted 13 September 2011

Academic Editor: Kimberly K. Leslie

Copyright © 2011 Mones Abu-Asab et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. X. Gao, J. Outley, M. Botteman, J. Spalding, J. A. Simon, and C. L. Pashos, “Economic burden of endometriosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 1561–1572, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. J. E. A. Sampson, “Peritoneal endometriosis due to menstrual dissemination of endometrial tissue into the peritoneal cavity,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 14, pp. 422–469, 1927.
  3. R. W. Steele, W. P. Dmowski, and D. J. Marmer, “Immunologic aspects of human endometriosis,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 33–36, 1984. View at Scopus
  4. H. Cakmak, O. Guzeloglu-Kayisli, U. A. Kayisli, and A. Arici, “Immune-endocrine interactions in endometriosis,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 1, pp. 429–443, 2009. View at Scopus
  5. J. L. Simpson, S. Elias, L. R. Malinak, and V. C. Buttram, “Heritable aspects of endometriosis. I. Genetic studies,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 327–331, 1980. View at Scopus
  6. D. L. Anger and W. G. Foster, “The link between environmental toxicant exposure and endometriosis,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1578–1593, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Kennedy, H. Mardon, and D. Barlow, “Familial endometriosis,” Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 32–34, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. A. Brinton, G. Gridley, I. Persson, J. Baron, and A. Bergqvist, “Cancer risk after a hospital discharge diagnosis of endometriosis,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 176, no. 3, pp. 572–579, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. Kobayashi, K. Sumimoto, N. Moniwa et al., “Risk of developing ovarian cancer among women with ovarian endometrioma: a cohort study in Shizuoka, Japan,” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. A. Melin, P. Sparén, I. Persson, and A. Bergqvist, “Endometriosis and the risk of cancer with special emphasis on ovarian cancer,” Human Reproduction, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1237–1242, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. F. Nezhat, M. S. Datta, V. Hanson, T. Pejovic, C. Nezhat, and C. Nezhat, “The relationship of endometriosis and ovarian malignancy: a review,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 1559–1570, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. D. A. Bell, “Origins and molecular pathology of ovarian cancer,” Modern Pathology, vol. 18, supplement 2, pp. S19–S32, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. P. Viganó, E. Somigliana, I. Chiodo, A. Abbiati, and P. Vercellini, “Molecular mechanisms and biological plausibility underlying the malignant transformation of endometriosis: a critical analysis,” Human Reproduction Update, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 77–89, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. H. B. Sarnat and M. G. Netsky, “Hypothesis: phylogenetic diseases of the nervous system,” Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 29–33, 1984. View at Scopus
  15. M. Abu-Asab, M. Chaouchi, and H. Amri, “Evolutionary medicine: a meaningful connection between omics, disease, and treatment,” Proteomics—Clinical Applications, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 122–134, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. M. S. Abu-Asab, M. Chaouchi, and H. Amri, “Phylogenetic modeling of heterogeneous gene-expression microarray data from cancerous specimens,” OMICS A Journal of Integrative Biology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 183–199, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. A. Hever, R. B. Roth, P. Hevezi et al., “Human endometriosis is associated with plasma cells and overexpression of B lymphocyte stimulator,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 30, pp. 12451–12456, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. M. Abu-Asab, M. Chaouchi, and H. Amri, “Phyloproteomics: what phylogenetic analysis reveals about serum proteomics,” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 2236–2240, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. J. Felsenstein, “PHYLIP: phylogeny inference package (version 3.2),” Cladistics, vol. 5, pp. 164–166, 1989.
  20. R. D. page, “TreeView: an application to display phylogenetic trees on personal computers,” Computer Applications in the Biosciences, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 357–358, 1996. View at Scopus
  21. J. Lyons-Weiler, S. Patel, M. J. Becich, and T. E. Godfrey, “Tests for finding complex patterns of differential expression in cancers: towards individualized medicine,” BMC Bioinformatics, vol. 5, p. 110, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. J. Hanai, T. Mammoto, P. Seth et al., “Lipocalin 2 diminishes invasiveness and metastasis of Ras-transformed cells,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, no. 14, pp. 13641–13647, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. R. Lim, N. Ahmed, N. Borregaard et al., “Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) an early-screening biomarker for ovarian cancer: NGAL is associated with epidermal growth factor-induced epithelio-mesenchymal transition,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 120, no. 11, pp. 2426–2434, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. J. Otsuka, T. Okuda, A. Sekizawa et al., “K-ras mutation may promote carcinogenesis of endometriosis leading to ovarian clear cell carcinoma,” Medical Electron Microscopy, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 188–192, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. H. R. Owen, M. Elser, E. Cheung, M. Gersbach, W. L. Kraus, and M. O. Hottiger, “MYBBP1a is a novel repressor of NF-κB,” Journal of Molecular Biology, vol. 366, no. 3, pp. 725–736, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. D. Al-Azawi, M. M. Ilroy, G. Kelly et al., “Ets-2 and p160 proteins collaborate to regulate c-Myc in endocrine resistant breast cancer,” Oncogene, vol. 27, no. 21, pp. 3021–3031, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. S. Battersby, H. O. D. Critchley, K. Morgan, R. P. Millar, and H. N. Jabbour, “Expression and regulation of the prokineticins (endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor and Bv8) and their receptors in the human endometrium across the menstrual cycle,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 2463–2469, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. N. Taylor, J. Yu, P. B. Torres et al., “Mechanistic and therapeutic implications of angiogenesis in endometriosis,” Reproductive Sciences, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 140–146, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. D. S. Park, H. Lee, P. G. Frank et al., “Caveolin-1-deficient mice show accelerated mammary gland development during pregnancy, premature lactation, and hyperactivation of the Jak-2/STAT5a signaling cascade,” Molecular Biology of the Cell, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 3416–3430, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. S. Rane and E. Reddy, “Janus kinases: components of multiple signaling pathways,” Oncogene, vol. 19, no. 49, pp. 5662–5679, 2000. View at Scopus
  31. E. Buyuk and D. B. Seifer, “Follicular-fluid neurotrophin levels in women undergoing assisted reproductive technology for different etiologies of infertility,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 1611–1615, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. G. Wang, N. Tokushige, R. Markham, and I. S. Fraser, “Rich innervation of deep infiltrating endometriosis,” Human Reproduction, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 827–834, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. Z. Chai, P. Brereton, T. Suzuki et al., “17 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type XI localizes to human steroidogenic cells,” Endocrinology, vol. 144, no. 5, pp. 2084–2091, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. Šmuc, N. Hevir, M. Ribič-Pucelj, B. Husen, H. Thole, and T. L. Rižner, “Disturbed estrogen and progesterone action in ovarian endometriosis,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 301, no. 1-2, pp. 59–64, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. J. M. Rodriguez, M. A. Glozak, Y. Ma, and W. Cress, “Bok, Bcl-2-related ovarian killer, is cell cycle-regulated and sensitizes to stress-induced apoptosis,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 281, no. 32, pp. 22729–22735, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  36. A. G. Yakovlev, G. Wang, W. Liu, B. Stoica, and A. I. Faden, “BOK and NOXA are essential mediators of p53-dependent apoptosis,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 279, no. 27, pp. 28367–28374, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. H. W. Chung, Y. Wen, S. H. Chun, C. Nezhat, B. H. Woo, and M. Polan, “Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 mRNA expression in ectopic and eutopic endometrium in women with endometriosis: a rationale for endometriotic invasiveness,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 152–159, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. D. P. Braun, J. Ding, F. Shaheen, J. C. Willey, N. Rana, and W. P. Dmowski, “Quantitative expression of apoptosis-regulating genes in endometrium from women with and without endometriosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 263–268, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. T. Toki and K. Nakayama, “Proliferative activity and genetic alterations in TP53 in endometriosis,” Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, vol. 50, supplement 1, pp. 33–38, 2000.
  40. P. Laudanski, J. Szamatowicz, O. Kowalczuk, M. Kuźmicki, M. Grabowicz, and L. Chyczewski, “Expression of selected tumor suppressor and oncogenes in endometrium of women with endometriosis,” Human Reproduction, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1880–1890, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. O. Bukulmez, D. B. Hardy, B. R. Carr, R. A. Word, and C. R. Mendelson, “Inflammatory status influences aromatase and steroid receptor expression in endometriosis,” Endocrinology, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 1190–1204, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  42. K. S. Jackson, A. Brudney, J. M. Hastings, P. A. Mavrogianis, J. J. Kim, and A. T. Fazleabas, “The altered distribution of the steroid hormone receptors and the chaperone immunophilin FKBP52 in a baboon model of endometriosis is associated with progesterone resistance during the window of uterine receptivity,” Reproductive Sciences, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 137–150, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  43. T. L. Rižner, “Estrogen metabolism and action in endometriosis,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 307, no. 1-2, pp. 8–18, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  44. K. E. Cox, M. Piva, and K. L. Sharpe-Timms, “Differential regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene expression in endometriotic lesions compared with endometrium,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 1297–1303, 2001. View at Scopus
  45. N. Takai, “Expression of receptor tyrosine kinase EphB4 and its ligand ephrin-B2 is associated with malignant potential in endometrial cancer,” Oncology Reports, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 567–573, 2001. View at Scopus
  46. R. Shaco-Levy, S. Sharabi, D. Benharroch, B. Piura, and N. Sion-Vardy, “Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, E-cadherin, and β-catenin expression in endometriosis, low-grade endometrial carcinoma and non-neoplastic eutopic endometrium,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 226–232, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  47. S. Kauma, M. R. Clark, C. White, and J. Halme, “Production of fibronectin by peritoneal macrophages and concentration of fibronectin in peritoneal fluid from patients with or without endometriosis,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 13–18, 1988. View at Scopus
  48. S. Matsuzaki, M. Canis, C. Vaurs-Barrière, O. Boespflug-Tanguy, B. Dastugue, and G. Mage, “DNA microarray analysis of gene expression in eutopic endometrium from patients with deep endometriosis using laser capture microdissection,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 84, supplement 2, pp. 1180–1190, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  49. M. H. Wu, B. C. Yang, Y. C. Lee, P. L. Wu, and C. C. Hsu, “The differential expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and regulation by interferon-γ during the pathogenesis of endometriosis,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 373–380, 2004. View at Scopus
  50. H. Mizutani, N. Schechter, G. Lazarus, R. A. Black, and T. S. Kupper, “Rapid and specific conversion of precursor interleukin 1β (IL-1β) to an active IL-1 species by human mast cell chymase,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 174, no. 4, pp. 821–825, 1991. View at Scopus
  51. C. Maihöfner, S. Probst-Cousin, M. Bergmann, W. Neuhuber, B. Neundörfer, and D. Heuss, “Expression and localization of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in human sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1527–1534, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. P. Mukhopadhyay, M. Rajesh, H. Pan et al., “Cannabinoid-2 receptor limits inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and cell death in nephropathy,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 457–467, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  53. D. P. Del Re, S. Miyamoto, and J. H. Brown, “RhoA/Rho kinase up-regulate Bax to activate a mitochondrial death pathway and induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 282, no. 11, pp. 8069–8078, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  54. T. Fernandes-Alnemri, G. Litwack, and E. S. Alnemri, “CPP32, a novel human apoptotic protein with homology to Caenorhabditis elegans cell death protein Ced-3 and mammalian interleukin-1 β-converting enzyme,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 269, no. 49, pp. 30761–30764, 1994. View at Scopus
  55. P. Vito, T. Ghayur, and L. D'Adamio, “Generation of anti-apoptotic presenilin-2 polypeptides by alternative transcription, proteolysis, and caspase-3 cleavage,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 45, pp. 28315–28320, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. Y. S. So, Y. B. Chen, I. Ivamovska et al., “BAD is a pro-survival factor prior to activation of its pro-apoptotic function,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 279, no. 40, pp. 42240–42249, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  57. A. T. Remaley, J. A. Stonik, S. J. Demosky et al., “Apolipoprotein specificity for lipid efflux by the human ABCAI transporter,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 280, no. 3, pp. 818–823, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  58. S. E. Bulun, K. Zeitoun, K. Takayama et al., “Estrogen production in endometriosis and use of aromatase inhibitors to treat endometriosis,” Endocrine-Related Cancer, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 293–301, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. E. Novella-Maestre, C. Carda, A. Ruiz-Sauri, J. A. Garcia-Velasco, C. Simon, and A. Pellicer, “Identification and quantification of dopamine receptor 2 in human eutopic and ectopic endometrium: a novel molecular target for endometriosis therapy,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 866–873, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  60. J. Fujimoto, R. Hirose, H. Sakaguchi, and T. Tamaya, “Expression of oestrogen receptor-α and -β in ovarian endometriomata,” Molecular Human Reproduction, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 742–747, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. T. Šmuc, M. R. Pucelj, J. Šinkovec, B. Husen, H. Thole, and T. L. Rižner, “Expression analysis of the genes involved in estradiol and progesterone action in human ovarian endometriosis,” Gynecological Endocrinology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 105–111, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  62. S. E. Bulun, “Endometriosis,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 360, no. 3, pp. 268–279, 2009.
  63. S. E. Bulun, Y. H. Cheng, M. E. Pavone et al., “Estrogen receptor-β, estrogen receptor-α, and progesterone resistance in endometriosis,” Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 36–43, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  64. B. Borghese, D. Vaiman, D. de Ziegler, and C. Chapron, “[Endometriosis and genetics: what responsibility for the genes?],” Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction (Paris), vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 196–207, 2010.
  65. L. Cobellis, N. Colacurci, E. Trabucco, C. Carpentiero, and L. Grumetto, “Measurement of bisphenol A and bisphenol B levels in human blood sera from healthy and endometriotic women,” Biomedical Chromatography, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 1186–1190, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  66. M. G. Perpora, E. Medda, A. Abballe et al., “Endometriosis and organochlorinated environmental pollutants: a case-control study on Italian women of reproductive age,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 117, no. 7, pp. 1070–1075, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  67. P. C. Huang, E. M. Tsai, W. F. Li et al., “Association between phthalate exposure and glutathione S-transferase M1 polymorphism in adenomyosis, leiomyoma and endometriosis,” Human Reproduction, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 986–994, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  68. B. Bianco, D. M. Christofolini, F. A. Mafra, A. Brandes, K. Zulli, and C. P. Barbosa, “+1730 G/A polymorphism of the estrogen receptor β gene (ERβ) may be an important genetic factor predisposing to endometriosis,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 88, no. 12, pp. 1397–1401, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  69. Z. Wang, S. Yoshida, K. Negoro, S. Kennedy, D. Barlow, and T. Maruo, “Polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor β gene but not estrogen receptor α gene affect the risk of developing endometriosis in a Japanese population,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 1650–1656, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  70. M. Wingfield, A. Macpherson, D. L. Healy, and P. A. W. Rogers, “Cell proliferation is increased in the endometrium of women with endometriosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 340–346, 1995. View at Scopus
  71. A. Jurgensen, L. Mettler, N. I. Volkov, and R. Parwaresch, “Proliferative activity of the endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle in infertile women with and without endometriosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 369–375, 1996. View at Scopus
  72. H. M. Gebel, D. P. Braun, A. Tambur, D. Frame, N. Rana, and W. P. Dmowski, “Spontaneous apoptosis of endometrial tissue is impaired in women with endometriosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 1042–1047, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. R. K. Jones, R. F. Searle, and J. N. Bulmer, “Apoptosis and bcl-2 expression in normal human endometrium, endometriosis and adenomyosis,” Human Reproduction, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 3496–3502, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. B. A. Lessey, A. J. Castelbaum, S. W. Sawin et al., “Aberrant integrin expression in the endometrium of women with endometriosis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 643–649, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. Sugawara, H. Yoshida, T. Fukaya, A. Yajima, and T. Murakami, “Increased secretion of hepatocyte growth factor by eutopic endometrial stromal cells in women with endometriosis,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 468–472, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus