Table 1: Background characteristics for DC and non-DC mothers.
Mean [SD] maternal age (yr)
Education < 12 yrs, %
Household income < $10,000 CAD/yr, %
Not living with a male partner, %
Lived in Canada <2 years, %
Limited or no official language fluency (i.e., English or French) at 4-month home visit, %
Mother’s region of birth by UN world macroregion
Europe and North America, %
Latin America*, %
Migration status at time of recruitment
Asylum seeking, %
Accepted refugee, %
Nonrefugee/family class, %
No health insurance at time of delivery, %
First contact with health care provider during pregnancy
First trimester, %
Second trimester, %
Third trimester, %
Caesarean birth, %
Mother feels that she has no one to help her and/or no one who cares about her at 1-week postpartum, %
Mother reports physical abuse in the last year (measured by the Abuse Assessment Screen), %
Mother reports experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event (measured by Harvard Trauma Questionnaire), %
Mother cutting or skipping meals due to lack of resources 1-week postpartum, % 4-month postpartum, %
aMissing data on one woman.
bMissing data on three women.
cMissing data ( and ) as mothers either did not know or did not want to disclose their household income.
dMissing data on two women.
eMissing data on seven women.
fMissing data on 28 women.
gThe abuse questionnaire was only administered if no male was present in the household to ensure the mother’s safety ( and ).
*Includes the Caribbean, Central and South Americas.