- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Obstetrics and Gynecology International
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 602720, 10 pages
Epigenetics and Breast Cancers
Department of Physiology & Biophysics, The Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC 20059, USA
Received 18 July 2011; Accepted 9 January 2012
Academic Editor: Shi-Wen Jiang
Copyright © 2012 An T. Vo and Richard M. Millis. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- T. J. Key, P. K. Verkasalo, and E. Banks, “Epidemiology of breast cancer,” Lancet Oncology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 133–140, 2001.
- K. McPherson, C. M. Steel, and J. M. Dixon, “ABC of breast diseases: breast cancer-epidemiology, risk factors, and genetics,” British Medical Journal, vol. 321, no. 7261, pp. 624–628, 2000.
- J. Veeck and M. Esteller, “Breast cancer epigenetics: from DNA methylation to microRNAs,” Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 5–17, 2010.
- A. P. Bird, “CpG-rich islands and the function of DNA methylation,” Nature, vol. 321, no. 6067, pp. 209–213, 1986.
- R. M. Millis, “Epigenetics and hypertension,” Current Hypertension Reports, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 21–28, 2011.
- M. Esteller, “CpG island hypermethylation and tumor suppressor genes: a booming present, a brighter future,” Oncogene, vol. 21, no. 35, pp. 5427–5440, 2002.
- C. Nguyen, G. Liang, T. T. Nguyen et al., “Susceptibility of nonpromoter CpG islands to de novo methylation in normal and neoplastic cells,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 93, no. 19, pp. 1465–1472, 2001.
- S. M. Meeran, A. Ahmed, and T. O. Tollefsbol, “Epigenetic targets of bioactive dietary components for cancer prevention and therapy,” Clinical Epigenetics, pp. 1–16, 2010.
- A. M. Dworkin, T. H. M. Huang, and A. E. Toland, “Epigenetic alterations in the breast: implications for breast cancer detection, prognosis and treatment,” Seminars in Cancer Biology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 165–171, 2009.
- S. B. Baylin, J. G. Herman, J. R. Graff, P. M. Vertino, and J. P. Issa, “Alterations in DNA methylation: a fundamental aspect of neoplasia,” Advances in Cancer Research, vol. 72, pp. 141–196, 1997.
- S. Mishra, S. P. Dwivedi, and R. B. Singh, “A review on epigenetic effect of heavy metal carcinogens on human health,” The Open Nutraceuticals Journal, vol. 3, pp. 188–193, 2010.
- H. Cedar and Y. Bergman, Epigenetic Silencing during Early Lineage Commitment, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2009, StemBook, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=stembook&part=epigeneticsilencing.
- R. Michaelson-Cohen, I. Keshet, R. Straussman, M. Hecht, H. Cedar, and U. Beller, “Genome-wide de novo methylation in epithelial ovarian cancer,” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 269–279, 2011.
- R. Straussman, D. Nejman, D. Roberts et al., “Developmental programming of CpG island methylation profiles in the human genome,” Nature Structural and Molecular Biology, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 564–571, 2009.
- S. Dedeurwaerder, D. Fumagalli, and F. Fuks, “Unravelling the epigenomic dimension of breast cancers,” Current Opinion in Oncology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 559–565, 2011.
- C. Thomas and J. A. Gustafsson, “The different roles of ER subtypes in cancer biology and therapy,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 597–608, 2011.
- V. K. Hill, C. Ricketts, I. Bieche et al., “Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of CpG islands in breast cancer identifies novel genes associated with tumorigenicity,” Cancer Research, vol. 71, no. 8, pp. 2988–2999, 2011.
- G. C. Hon, R. D. Hawkins, O. L. Caballero, et al., “Global DNA hypomethylation coupled to repressive chromatin domain formation and gene silencing in breast cancer,” Genome Research, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 246–258, 2012.
- J. Hatae, N. Takami, H. Lin, A. Honda, and R. Inoue, “17beta-Estradiol-induced enhancement of estrogen receptor biosynthesis via MAPK pathway in mouse skeletal muscle myoblasts,” The Journal of Physiological Sciences, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 181–190, 2009.
- J. G. Moggs and G. Orphanides, “Estrogen receptors: orchestrators of pleiotropic cellular responses,” EMBO Reports, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 775–781, 2001.
- Q. Wu, K. L. Chambliss, S. Oltmann et al., “Non-nuclear estrogen receptor α signaling promotes cardiovascular protection but not uterine or breast cancer growth in mice,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 120, no. 7, pp. 2319–2330, 2010.
- S. Ali and R. C. Coombes, “Estrogen receptor α in human breast cancer: occurrence and significance,” Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 271–281, 2000.
- C. Slemenda, C. Longcope, M. Peacock, S. Hui, and C. C. Johnston, “Sex steroids, bone mass, and bone loss: a prospective study of pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 14–21, 1996.
- M. Clemons and P. Goss, “Estrogen and the risk of breast cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 344, pp. 276–284, 2001.
- R. Kaaks, F. Berrino, T. Key et al., “Serum sex steroids in premenopausal women and breast cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC),” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 97, no. 10, pp. 755–765, 2005.
- R. Suzuki, T. Rylander-Rudqvist, W. Ye, S. Saji, and A. Wolk, “Body weight and postmenopausal breast cancer risk defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status among Swedish women: a prospective cohort study,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 119, no. 7, pp. 1683–1689, 2006.
- P. Parrella, “Epigenetic signatures in breast cancer: clinical perspective,” Breast Care, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 66–73, 2010.
- K. B. Horwitz and W. L. McGuire, “Estrogen control of progesterone receptor in human breast cancer. Correlation with nuclear processing of estrogen receptor,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 253, no. 7, pp. 2223–2228, 1978.
- J.-W. Gu, E. Young, S. G. Patterson et al., “Postmenopausal obesity promotes tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer progression in mice,” Cancer Biology and Therapy, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 910–917, 2011.
- G. di Leva, P. Gasparini, C. Piovan et al., “MicroRNA cluster 221-222 and estrogen receptor α interactions in breast cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 102, no. 10, pp. 706–721, 2010.
- S. J. Nass, J. G. Herman, E. Gabrielson et al., “Aberrant methylation of the estrogen receptor and E-cadherin 5′ CpG islands increases with malignant progression in human breast cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 60, no. 16, pp. 4346–4348, 2000.
- M. Kawazu, K. Saso, K. I. Tong et al., “Histone demethylase JMJD2B functions as a co-factor of estrogen receptor in breast cancer proliferation and mammary gland development,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 3, Article ID e17830, 2011.
- V. Kumar and P. Chambon, “The estrogen receptor binds tightly to its responsive element as a ligand-induced homodimer,” Cell, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 145–156, 1988.
- V. Cappelletti, P. Miodini, G. Di Fronzo, and M. G. Daidone, “Modulation of estrogen receptor-beta isoforms by phytoestrogens in breast cancer cells,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1185–1191, 2006.
- S.-I. Hayashi, H. Eguchi, K. Tanimoto et al., “The expression and function of estrogen receptor α and β in human breast cancer and its clinical application,” Endocrine-Related Cancer, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 193–202, 2003.
- K. Zhu, N. E. Davidson, S. Hunter, et al., “Methyl-group dietary intake and risk of breast cancer among African-American women: a case-control study by methylation status of the estrogen receptor alpha genes,” Cancer Causes & Control, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 827–836, 2003.
- N. G. Lopatina, B. F. Vanyushin, G. M. Cronin, and L. A. Poirier, “Elevated expression and altered pattern of activity of DNA methyltransferase in liver tumors of rats fed methyl-deficient diets,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1777–1781, 1998.
- B. C. Christensen, K. T. Kelsey, S. Zheng et al., “Breast cancer DNA methylation profiles are associated with tumor size and alcohol and folate intake,” PLoS Genetics, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 1–10, 2010.
- United States Food and Drug Administration, “FDA begins process to remove breast cancer indication from Avastin label,” FDA News Release, http://www.fda.gov/newsevents/newsroom/pressannouncements/ucm237172.htm, July 2010.
- A. Dembinska-Kiec, A. Polus, B. Kiec-Wilk et al., “Proangiogenic activity of β-carotene is coupled with the activation of endothelial cell chemotaxis,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1740, no. 2, pp. 222–239, 2005.
- B. Kiec-Wilk, U. Razny, J. C. Mathers, and A. Dembinska-Kiec, “DNA methylation, induced by β-carotene and arachidonic acid, plays a regulatory role in the pro-angiogenic VEGF-receptor (KDR) gene expression in endothelial cells,” Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 49–53, 2009.
- B. J. Bennion, M. Cosman, F. C. Lightstone et al., “PhIP carcinogenicity in breast cancer: computational and experimental evidence for competitive interactions with human estrogen receptor,” Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1528–1536, 2005.
- S. K. Creton, H. Zhu, and N. J. Gooderham, “The cooked meat carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine activates the extracellular signal regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway,” Cancer Research, vol. 67, no. 23, pp. 11455–11462, 2007.
- S. N. Lauber, S. Ali, and N. J. Gooderham, “The cooked food derived carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine is a potent oestrogen: a mechanistic basis for its tissue-specific carcinogenicity,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2509–2517, 2004.
- T. Okubo and I. Kano, “Studies on estrogenic activities of food additives with human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and mechanism of estrogenicity by BHA and OPP,” Yakugaku Zasshi, vol. 123, no. 6, pp. 443–452, 2003.
- G. M. Williams, “Epigenetic promoting effects of butylated hydroxyanisole,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 24, no. 10-11, pp. 1163–1166, 1986.
- A. Ozaki, Y. Yamaguchi, T. Fujita, K. Kuroda, and G. Endo, “Chemical analysis and genotoxicological safety assessment of paper and paperboard used for food packaging,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 1323–1337, 2004.
- J. Lopez-Cervantes and P. Paseiro-Losada, “Determination of bisphenol A in, and its migration from, PVC stretch film used for food packaging,” Food Additives and Contaminants, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 596–606, 2003.
- X. Sun, J. M. Fontaine, I. Bartl, B. Behnam, M. J. Welsh, and R. Benndorf, “Induction of Hsp22 (HspB8) by estrogen and the metalloestrogen cadmium in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells,” Cell Stress and Chaperones, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 307–319, 2007.
- United States Department of Labor, “Heavy metals,” 2011, http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/metalsheavy/index.html.
- National Institute of Health, Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Chromium, http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/chromium, 2011.
- Y. Li and T. O. Tollefsbol, “Impact on DNA methylation in cancer prevention and therapy by bioactive dietary components,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 20, pp. 2141–2151, 2010.
- K. L. Kirkpatrick, G. Clark, M. Ghilchick, R. F. Newbold, and K. Mokbel, “hTERT mRNA expression correlates with telomerase activity in human breast cancer,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 321–326, 2003.
- M. J. Messina and C. L. Loprinzi, “Soy for breast cancer survivors: a critical review of the literature,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 11, 2001.
- K. B. Bouker and L. Hilakivi-Clarke, “Genistein: does it prevent or promote breast cancer?” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 108, no. 8, pp. 701–708, 2000.
- H. G. Shertzer, A. Puga, C. Chang, et al., “Inhibition of CYP1A1 enzyme activity in mouse hepatoma cell culture by soybean isoflavones,” Chemical and Biological Interactions, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 31–49, 1999.
- J. L. Stanford, L. J. Herrinton, S. M. Schwartz, and N. S. Weiss, “Breast cancer incidence in Asian migrants to the United States and their descendants,” Epidemiology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 181–183, 1995.
- D. B. Thomas and M. R. Karagas, “Cancer in first and second generation Americans,” Cancer Research, vol. 47, no. 21, pp. 5771–5776, 1987.
- D. M. Parkin, S. L. Whelan, J. Ferlay, L. Raymond, and J. Young, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, vol. 7 of Publications No 143, IARC Scientific Publication, Lyon, France, 1997.
- K. Hirose, N. Imaeda, Y. Tokudome et al., “Soybean products and reduction of breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Japan,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 2005.
- M. J. Messina, V. Persky, K. D. Setchell, and S. Barnes, “Soy intake and cancer risk: a review of the in vitro and in vivo data,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 113–131, 1994.
- S. Yamamoto, T. Sobue, M. Kobayashi et al., “Soy, isoflavones, and breast cancer risk in Japan,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 95, no. 12, pp. 906–913, 2003.