- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Obstetrics and Gynecology International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 195454, 6 pages
Morinda citrifolia (Noni) as an Anti-Inflammatory Treatment in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhoea: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica
2Department of Pathology, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica
3Tropical Metabolism Research Unit, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica
4Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Deans Office, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica
Received 28 August 2012; Accepted 23 December 2012
Academic Editor: Robert Coleman
Copyright © 2013 H. M. Fletcher et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- L. French, “Dysmenorrhea,” American Family Physician, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 285–291, 2005.
- L. French, “Dysmenorrhea in adolescents: diagnosis and treatment,” Pediatric Drugs, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2008.
- O. Ylikorkala and M. Y. Dawood, “New concepts in dysmenorrhea,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 130, no. 7, pp. 833–847, 1978.
- A. M. Powell, W. Y. Chan, P. Alvin, and I. F. Litt, “Menstrual-PGF2α, PGE2 and TXA2 in normal and dysmenorrheic women and their temporal relationship to dysmenorrhea,” Prostaglandins, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 273–290, 1985.
- E. C. Hayes and J. A. Rock, “COX-2 inhibitors and their role in gynecology,” Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 768–780, 2002.
- M. Y. Wang and C. Su, “Cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni),” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 952, pp. 161–168, 2001.
- S. Basar, K. Uhlenhut, P. Högger, F. Schöne, and J. Westendorf, “Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) fruit,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 38–42, 2010.
- X. Zhang, J. Li, D. K. W. Wong, T. E. Wagner, and Y. Wei, “Fermented Noni exudate-treated dendritic cells directly stimulate B lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation,” Oncology Reports, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1147–1152, 2009.
- M. Y. Wang, D. Nowicki, G. Anderson, J. Jensen, and B. West, “Liver protective effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni),” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 59–63, 2008.
- M. Y. Wang, L. Peng, M. N. Lutfiyya, E. Henley, V. Weidenbacher-Hoper, and G. Anderson, “Morinda citrifolia (Noni) reduces cancer risk in current smokers by decreasing aromatic DNA adducts,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 634–639, 2009.
- M. L. G. McKoy, E. A. Thomas, and O. R. Simon, “Preliminary investigation of the anti-inflammatory properties of an aqueous extract from Morinda citrifolia (Noni),” Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society, vol. 45, pp. 76–78, 2002.
- C. D. Lorish and R. Maisiak, “The face scale: a brief, nonverbal method for assessing patient mood,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 906–909, 1986.
- J. M. Higham, P. M. S. O'Brien, and R. W. Shaw, “Assessment of menstrual blood loss using a pictorial chart,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 97, no. 8, pp. 734–739, 1990.
- B. Andersch and I. Milsom, “An epidemiologic study of young women with dysmenorrhea,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 144, no. 6, pp. 655–660, 1982.
- A. Unsal, U. Ayranci, M. Tozun, G. Arslan, and E. Calik, “Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its effect on quality of life among a group of female university students,” Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 138–145, 2010.
- M. Akerlund, “Vasopressin and oxytocin in normal reproduction and in the pathophysiology of preterm labour and primary dysmenorrhoea. Development of receptor antagonists for therapeutic use in these conditions,” Roczniki Akademii Medycznej w Bialymstoku, vol. 49, pp. 18–21, 2004.
- M. Åkerlund, P. Melin, and M. Maggi, “Potential use of oxytocin and vasopressin V1a antagonists in the treatment of preterm labour and primary dysmenorrhoea,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 395, pp. 595–600, 1995.
- P. Stromberg, M. Akerlund, and M. L. Forsling, “Vasopressin and prostaglandins in premenstrual pain and primary dysmenorrhea,” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 533–538, 1984.
- M. L. Proctor, H. Roberts, and C. M. Farquhar, “Combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) as treatment for primary dysmenorrhoea,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, Article ID CD002120, 2001.
- C. L. Wong, C. Farquhar, H. Roberts, and M. Proctor, “Oral contraceptive pill as treatment for primary dysmenorrhoea,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, Article ID CD002120, 2009.
- J. Marjoribanks, M. Proctor, C. Farquhar, and R. S. Derks, “Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for dysmenorrhoea,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, Article ID CD001751, 2010.
- C. Younos, A. Rolland, J. Fleurentin, M. C. Lanhers, R. Misslin, and F. Mortier, “Analgestic and behavioural effects of Morinda citrifolia,” Planta Medica, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 430–434, 1990.
- B. J. West, C. J. Jensen, and J. Westendorf, “Noni juice is not hepatotoxic,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 12, no. 22, pp. 3616–3619, 2006.
- B. J. West, C. X. Su, and C. J. Jensen, “Hepatotoxicity and subchronic toxicity tests of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit,” Journal of Toxicological Sciences, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 581–585, 2009.
- J. Westendorf, K. Effenberger, H. Iznaguen, and S. Basar, “Toxicological and analytical investigations of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit juice,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 529–537, 2007.