- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Obstetrics and Gynecology International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 348248, 10 pages
What Works and What Does Not: A Discussion of Popular Approaches for the Abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation
1Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland
2UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on FGM/C, United Nations Population Fund, 304 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017, USA
3Flinders University, Flinders Prevention, Promotion and Primary Health Care, Southgate Institute South Australia, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
4International Centre for Reproductive Health, De Pintelaan 185 UZP114, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Received 8 February 2013; Accepted 18 March 2013
Academic Editor: Johanne Sundby
Copyright © 2013 R. Elise B. Johansen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- UNICEF, Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting. A Statistical Exploration, 2005.
- UNFPA, Declining rates of FGM/C, online source, 2012.
- World Health Organisation, “Eliminating Female genital mutilation. An interagency statement,” OHCRH, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNECA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, WHO, 2008.
- S. Yoder, S. Wang, and R. E. B. Johansen, “Female genital mutilation/cutting: estimates of numbers from national surveys in 28 countries with national surveys,” Studies in Family Planning. In press.
- UNICEF, “Progress for children,” A Report Card on Child Protection 8, 2009.
- E. Denison, R. Berg, S. Lewin, and A. Fretheim, “Effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce the prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting,” Tech. Rep. 25-2009, Norwegian knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Oslo, Norway, 2009.
- N. F. Toubia and E. H. Sharief, “Female genital mutilation: have we made progress?” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 251–261, 2003.
- World Health Organisation, Female Genital Mutilation. Programmes to Date: What Works and What Doesn't?World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland, 1999.
- R. Berg and E. Denison, “Effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C): a systematic review of the best available evidence,” Studies in Family Planning, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 135–146, 2012.
- N. Diop and I. Askew, “Strategies for encouraging the abandonment of female genital cutting: experiences from Senegal, Burkina Faso and Mali,” in Female Circumcision, R. M. Abusharaf, Ed., pp. 125–141, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2006.
- J. Muteshi and J. Sass, Female Genital Mutilation in Africa: An Analysis of Current abAndonment Approaches, PATH, Nairobi, Kenya, 2005.
- Population Reference Bureau, AbAndoning Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: An in-Depth Look at Promising Practices, Washington, DC, USA, 2006.
- I. B. Lunde, Eradicating female genital cutting: understading reality conceptions. A study on perceptions of female genital cutting in Hargeisa, Somaliland (Somalia) [Ph.D. thesis], Departement of Community Health, Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway, 2012.
- World Health Organisation, “Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female genital mutilation,” UNAIDS, UNDP, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, WHO, FIGO, ICN, IOM, MWIA, WCPT, WMA, 2010.
- UNICEF, The Dynamics of Social Change: Towards the Abandonment of FGM in Five African Countries, 2010.
- A. Kaplan, M. Forbes, I. Bonhoure, et al., “Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) in The Gambia: long-term health consequences and complications during delivery and for the new born,” BMC Public Health, vol. 8, article 26, 2011.
- UNFPA, “UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Accelarating Change,” Annual Report 2011, UNFPA, 2012.
- B. Barsoum, N. Rifaat, O. El-Gibaly, N. Elwan, and N. Forcier, “National efforts towards FGM-free villages in Egypt: the evidence of impact,” Tech. Rep. 22, Population Council West Asia and North Africa Office, 2011.
- “Violence is not our culture. Mauritania: Muslim imams initiate rare ban on female circumcision,” AlertNet, January, 2010.
- A. Latourès, Saisir l'Etat en action en Afrique subsaharienne: action publique et appropriation de la cause des MGF au Mali et au Kenya [Ph.D. thesis], Université Bordeaux IV, Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Bordeaux/Centre d'Etudes d'Afrique Noiren, Bordeaux, France, 2008.
- A. Kaplan, S. Hechavarria, M. Martin, and I. Bonhoure, “Health consequences of female genital mutilation/cutting in the Gambia, evidence into action,” Reproductive Health, vol. 8, article 26, 2011, http://www.reproductive-health-journal.com/content/8/1/26.
- R. E. B. Johansen, “Health professionals should never perform female genital mutilation,” in Harmful Practices and Human Rights, pp. 157–169, Institute International des Droits de l'Enfant, Sion, Switzerland, 2011.
- R. E. B. Johansen, Experiences and perceptions of pain, sexuality, and childbirth. A study of female genital cutting among Somalis in Norwegian exile, and their health care providers [Ph.D. thesis], Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway, 2006.
- A. Satti, S. Elmusharaf, H. Bedri et al., “Prevalence and determinants of the practice of genital mutilation of girls in Khartoum, Sudan,” Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 303–310, 2006.
- A. A. Hadi, “A community of women empowered: the story of Deir Al Barsha,” in Female Circumcision, R. M. Abusharaf, Ed., pp. 104–124, 2006.
- B. Shell-Duncan, Y. Hernlund, K. Wander, and A. Moreau, “Contingency and change in the practice of female genital cutting: dynamics of decision making in Senegambia,” Tech. Rep., 2010.
- C. Gosselin, “Handing over the knife: Numu women and the campaign against women in Mali,” in Transcultural Bodies: Female Genital Cutting in Global Context, pp. 193–214, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, Canada, 2000.
- H. Oloo, M. Wanjiru, and K. Newell-Jones, “Female genital mutilation practices in Kenya: the role of alternative rites of passage. A case study of Kisii and Kuria districts,” in Feed the Minds, Kenya, 2011.
- M. Mohamud, S. Radeny, and K. Ringheim, “Community-based efforts to end female genital mutilation in Kenya: raising awareness and organising alternative rites of passage,” in Female Circumcision, R. M. Abusharaf, Ed., pp. 75–103, The Free Press, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2006.
- E. Banks, O. Meirik, T. Farley, O. Akande, H. Bathija, and M. Ali, “Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries,” The Lancet, vol. 367, pp. 1835–1841, 2006.
- S. Yoder and S. Khan, Number of Women Circumcised in Africa: the Production of A Total, 2008.
- N. Diop, M. Sangaré, F. Tandia, and K. Touré, Etude de l'efficacité de la Formation du Personnel Socio-Sanitaire dans l'Éducation des Client(e)s sur l'Excision et dans le Traitement de ses Complications au Mali, Population Council, Bamako, Mali, 1998.
- Y. Hernlund, “External review of the training and information campaign on the eradication of FGM in the Gambia,” Gambia Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children (GAMCOTRAP), FOKUS/NKTF, 2009.
- Population Council and CNRST, “Evaluation de la stratégie de reconversion des exciseuses pour l'éradication des mutilations génitales féminines au Mali,” Rapport final du projet de recherche operationnelle et d'assistance technique en Afrique II, Population Council et République du Mali, Ministère des Enseignements Secondaire, Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique, Bamako, Mali, 1998.
- GTZ, Addressing Female Genital Mutilation. Challenges and Perspectives For Health Programmes. Part I: Selected Approaches, 2001.
- Population Council and USAID, Reproductive Health Update Trainings For Health Workers in North Eastern Province, Garisssa Training Health Service Providers as Change Agents, 2006.
- A. Refaat, “Medicalization of female genital cutting in Egypt,” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1379–1388, 2009.
- A. Kaplan, S. Hechavarria, M. Bernal, and I. Bonhoure, “Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding FGM/C among rural Gambian health care professionals: a transcultural study,” BMC Public Health. In press.
- A. A. Hadi and A. S. Salaam, Physicians Attitudes Towards Female Circumcision, Institute for Human Rights, Cairo, Egypt, 1999.
- C. Njue and I. Askew, Medicalisation of Female Genital Cutting among the Abagusii in Nyanza Province, Kenya, Frontiers in Reproductive Health, Population Council, Nairobi, Kenya, 2004.
- S. M. Rasheed, A. H. Abd-Ellah, and F. M. Yousef, “Female genital mutilation in Upper Egypt in the new millennium,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 47–50, 2011.
- G. M. Mounir, N. H. Mahdy, and I. M. Fatohy, “Impact of health education program about reproductive health on knowledge and attitude of female Alexandria University students,” The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association, vol. 78, no. 5-6, pp. 433–466, 2003.
- R. Berg, E. Denison, and A. Fretheim, “Factors promoting and hindering the practice of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C),” Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services Report 23, 2009.
- Y. Hernlund, “Cutting without ritual and ritual without cutting: female, circumcision and the re-ritualisation of initiation in the Gambia,” in Female, “Circumcision” in Africa: Culture, Controversy and Change, B. Shell-Duncan and Y. Hernlund, Eds., pp. 235–252, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, Colo, USA, 2000.
- J. N. Chege, I. Askew, and J. Liku, An Assessment of the Alternative Rites Approach For Encouraging Abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation in Kenya, Population Council, New York, NY, USA, 2001.
- Population Reference Bureau, Abandoning Female Genital Cutting. Prevalence, Attitudes and Efforts To End the Practice, 2001.
- L. Dellenborg, “From pain to virtue, clitoridectomy and other ordeals in the creation of a female person,” SIDA Studies, vol. 24, supplement, pp. 93–101, 2009.
- F. Ahmadu, “Rites and wrongs: an insider/outsider reflects on power and excision,” in Female, “Circumcision” in Africa: Culture, Controversy and Change, B. Shell-Duncan and Y. Hernlund, Eds., pp. 283–312, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, Colo, USA, 2000.
- G. Mackie, “Female genital cutting: the beginning of the end,” in Female, “Circumcision” in Africa: Culture, Controversy and Change, B. Shell-Duncan and Y. Hernlund, Eds., pp. 253–282, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, Colo, USA, 2000.
- World Health Organisation, Community Empowerment, Internet Communication, 2012.
- R. C. Berg and E. Denison, “Interventions to reduce the prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting in African countries,” Campbell Systematic Reviews, vol. 9, 155 pages, 2013.
- “UNICEF Somalia,” Online Source, 2011.
- T. L. Draege, The role of men in the maintenance and change of female genital cutting in Eritrea [Ph.D. thesis], University of Bergen, Oslo, Norway, 2007.
- I. L. Asmani and M. S. Abdi, De-Linking Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting From Islam, Population Council, 2008.
- M. Aberese Ako and P. Akweongo, “The limited effectiveness of legislation against female genital mutilation and the role of community beliefs in Upper East Region, Ghana,” Reproductive Health Matters, vol. 17, no. 34, pp. 47–54, 2009.
- H. L. Sipsma, P. G. Chen, A. Oforiatta, U. O. Ilozumba, K. Karfo, and E. H. Bradley, “Female genital cutting: current practices and beliefs in western Africa,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 90, pp. 120–127, 2012.
- N. Diop and Z. Congo, Analysis of the Evoluation of the Practice of Female Genital Cutting in Burkina Faso, Population Council and CNLPE, 2008.
- E. M. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, Free Press, Glencoe, Ill, USA, 1962.