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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 386286, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/386286
Research Article

Silica Nanoparticles Sensitize Human Multiple Myeloma Cells to Snake (Walterinnesia aegyptia) Venom-Induced Apoptosis and Growth Arrest

1Clinical Pathology Department, South Egypt Cancer Institute, Assiut University, Assiut 171515, Egypt
2Zoology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
3Princess Johara Alibrahim Center for Cancer Research, Prostate Cancer Research Chair, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 7805, Riyadh 11472, Saudi Arabia
4Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt

Received 26 September 2012; Revised 2 November 2012; Accepted 2 November 2012

Academic Editor: Zhao Zhong Chong

Copyright © 2012 Douaa Sayed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Multiple myeloma (MM), an almost incurable disease, is the second most common blood cancer. Initial chemotherapeutic treatment could be successful; however, resistance development urges the use of higher toxic doses accompanied by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The establishment of more effective treatments that can overcome or circumvent chemoresistance has become a priority. We recently demonstrated that venom extracted from Walterinnesia aegyptia (WEV) either alone or in combination with silica nanoparticles (WEV+NPs) mediated the growth arrest and apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of WEV alone and WEV+NP on proliferation and apoptosis of MM cells. Methods. The impacts of WEV alone and WEV+NP were monitored in MM cells from 70 diagnosed patients. The influences of WEV and WEV+NP were assessed with flow cytometry analysis. Results. WEV alone and WEV+NP decreased the viability of MM cells. Using a CFSE proliferation assay, we found that WEV+NP strongly inhibited MM cell proliferation. Furthermore, analysis of the cell cycle using the propidium iodide (PI) staining method indicated that WEV+NP strongly altered the cell cycle of MM cells and enhanced the induction of apoptosis. Conclusions. Our data reveal the biological effects of WEV and WEV+NP on MM cells that enable these compounds to function as effective treatments for MM.