Table 1: Basic study design characteristics of the studies investigated the effect of vitamin C and/or vitamin E supplementation on training adaptations.

StudySpeciesNumber, sex, and age per groupTraining stateVitamin supplementationExercise protocol

Asha Devi et al. [29, 30]Rat3 M (4, 8, 12, 22 m)UntrainedVit E (50 IU/kg bw/day)Swimming (30 min, 5 sessions/week for 8.5 weeks)
Gomez-Cabrera et al. [9]Human5 M (29 y) or 9 M (31 y)UntrainedVit C (1000 mg/day)Cycling (65−80% VO2 max, 3 sessions/week for 8 weeks)
Gomez-Cabrera et al. [9]Rat6 M (3 m)UntrainedVit C (500 mg/kg bw/day)Running (75% VO2 max, 5 sessions/week for 3 or 6 weeks)
Higashida et al. [11]Rat3 M (3 m) or 6 M (3 m)UntrainedVit C (750 mg/kg bw/day) and vit E (150 mg/kg bw/day)Swimming (6 h, 6 sessions/week for 3 days or 3 weeks)
Ristow et al. [10]Human10 M (26 y)Untrained or moderately trainedVit C (1000 mg/day) and vit E (400 IU/day)Circuit training (65 min, 5 sessions/week for 4 weeks)
Roberts et al. [12]Human7 M (23) or 8 M (21)Moderately trainedVit C (1000 mg/day)Interval running (50−90% VO2 max, 50 min, 4 sessions/week for 4 weeks)
Ryan et al. [13]Rat7 M (3 or 30 m)UntrainedVit C (20 g/kg bw/day) and vit E (30 g/kg bw/day)Maximal stretch-shortening contractions
(80 contractions, 3 sessions/week for 4.5 weeks)
Theodorou et al. [14]Human14 M (26 y)Moderately trainedVit C (1000 mg/day) and vit E (400 IU/day)Resistance training (75 maximal eccentric actions, 2 sessions/week for 4 months)
Yfanti et al. [1517]Human10 M (31 y) or 11 M (29 y)Moderately trainedVit C (500 mg/day) and vit E (400 IU/day)Cycling (40−85% VO2 max, 5 sessions/week for 12 weeks)

Abbreviation: m: months; M: males; y: years.