Table 2: Redox and physiological variables measured in the studies investigated the effect of vitamin C and/or vitamin E supplementation on training adaptations.

StudyVitaminRedox biomarkerTraining endpoint

Asha Devi et al. [29, 30]Vit E (heart)TBARS, catalase, SOD (heart)Swimming time, plasma lipid profile
Gomez-Cabrera et al. [9]Vit C (plasma)VO2 max
Gomez-Cabrera et al. [9]Vit C (plasma)MnSOD, GPx (muscle)Running time, cytochrome c
Higashida et al. [11]TBARS, MnSOD, CuZnSOD (muscle)Mitochondrial proteins, GLUT4, glucose transport activity
Ristow et al. [10]TBARS (plasma and muscle), MnSOD, CuZnSOD, GPx1, catalase (muscle)Insulin sensitivity
Roberts et al. [12]Various performance tests, substrate metabolism
Ryan et al. [13]Hydrogen peroxide, 8-OHdG, MDA, 4-hydroxyalkenals, GSH, GSSG, MnSOD, CuZnSOD, GPx, catalase (muscle)Muscle hypertrophy, muscle function
Theodorou et al. [14]Vit C, vit E (plasma)TBARS, protein carbonyls, GSH, GSSG, catalase, uric acid, albumin, bilirubin, TAC (plasma or erythrocytes)Muscle performance, muscle damage
Yfanti et al. [1517]Vit C, vit E (plasma)MDA, protein carbonyls, MnSOD, CuZnSOD, GPx1, catalase, (muscle)Body composition, VO2 max, power, insulin sensitivity, GLUT4 (muscle), glycogen (muscle), CS (muscle), HAD (muscle), lipid profile (plasma)

Abbreviations: CS: citric synthase; CuZnSOD: copper zinc superoxide dismutase; GLUT4: glucose transporter type 4; GPx: glutathione peroxidase; GSH: glutathione; GSSG: glutathione disulfide; HAD: β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase; MDA: malondialdehyde; MnSOD: manganese superoxide dismutase; 8-OHdG: 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine; SOD: superoxide dismutase; TAC: total antioxidant capacity; TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances.