Figure 5: Latency time (a) and memory error rates (b) of young control (I), D-galactose alone(100 mg/kg) treated (II), D-galactose combined with pine pollen (500, 1000, 1500 mg/kg) treated (III, IV, V), and D-galactose combined with AG (100 mg/mg) treated (VI) mice. The step-down method was used to determine the latency time and memory error rates. Each mouse was trained for 5 min first to “remember” the system. Twenty-four hours later, mice were placed in the same cage and latency time (second), and the number of errors within five minutes was recorded. Data were results of ten animals for each group and expressed as mean ± SEM. Statistical significant difference: , versus I; , versus II.