Table 1: Experimental approaches that prevent testicular and sperm damage during environmental hypoxia.

Hypobaric hypoxiaTreatmentMechanismResults versus injuryReference

AcuteCyproheptadine5-HT receptor blockerEffects on spermatogenesis and testosterone production [40]
ChronicCaloric restriction?Suppresses early rise in testosterone [31]
IntermittentAscorbic acid
Oxidative stress in testis and epididymis
▲Glutathione reductase activity in testis and epididymis
▲ Sperm count
Reversedthe effectsof oxidative stress intestis, epididymis, and sperm cells
[41]
IntermittentMelatonin
(oral administration)
Preventsoxidativedamageof enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidaseProtective effect against lipid peroxidation under oxidative stress and reduction in sperm motility
[42]
IntermittentMelatonin
(intraperitoneal administration)
Levels of LH and FSH
Inhibition of aromatase
No protective effect in testis, and epididymis
No prevention of reduction in the numbers of sperm cells
[43]
Chronic and intermittentIbuprofenDecreases hypoxia-induced vasodilation?Protective effect against hypoxia-induced seminal lipid peroxidation
[42]