Table 2: Pharmacological approaches that modify testicular and sperm functional parameters in varicocele.

TreatmentMechanismResult versus injuryReference

PolydeoxyribonucleotidesAdenosine A2A-receptor stimulator Histological changes produced by varicocele
▲ Microvessels
[44]
AminoguanidineNitric oxide synthase inhibitorPrevents sperm DNA fragmentation[45]
AminoguanidineNitric oxide synthase inhibitor▲Sperm vitality, motility, and morphology[45]
EGFGrowth factor▲ Sperm count and motility[46]
MelatoninAntioxidant, hormone MDA and Bax levels
▲ CAT, SOD, and GPx activities
[47]

CAT: catalase; GPx: glutathione peroxidase; GSH: glutathione; SOD: superoxide dismutase.