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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 403973, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/403973
Clinical Study

Protein Sulfhydryl Group Oxidation and Mixed-Disulfide Modifications in Stable and Unstable Human Carotid Plaques

1Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Unviversità di Sassari, Via Muroni 25, 07100 Sassari, Italy
2Centro Cardiologico “F. Monzino”, IRCCS, 20138 Milano, Italy

Received 6 December 2012; Accepted 28 December 2012

Academic Editor: Sumitra Miriyala

Copyright © 2013 Antonio Junior Lepedda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objectives. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the outcome of atherosclerotic plaques. However, at present, no data are available neither on the degree of plaque protein sulfhydryl groups oxidation nor on its relationship with plaque vulnerability. We investigated the entity of protein-SH oxidative modifications, focusing on low molecular weight thiols adduction, in human carotid plaque extracts in relation to plaque stability/instability. Methods. Plaque stability/instability was histologically assessed. The extent of protein-SH oxidative modifications was established by a differential proteomic approach on fluorescein-5-maleimide-labeled plaque extracts and corresponding plasma samples from 48 endarterectomized patients. The analysis on protein thiolation was performed by capillary zone electrophoresis. Results. We observed a higher protein-SH oxidation of both plasma-derived and topically expressed proteins in unstable plaques, partly due to higher levels of S-thiolation. Conversely, in plasma, none of the investigated parameters discriminated among patients with stable and unstable plaques. Conclusions. Our results suggest the presence of a more pronounced oxidative environment in unstable plaques. Identifying specific oxidative modifications and understanding their effects on protein function could provide further insight into the relevance of oxidative stress in atherosclerosis.