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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 580710, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/580710
Review Article

Pituitary Adenoma Nitroproteomics: Current Status and Perspectives

1Key Laboratory of Cancer Proteomics of Chinese Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China
2Hunan Engineering Laboratory for Structural Biology and Drug Design, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China
3State Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Anticancer Drugs, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China
4The Charles B. Stout Neuroscience Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 847 Monroe Avenue, Memphis, TN 38163, USA

Received 2 December 2012; Accepted 14 January 2013

Academic Editor: Manikandan Panchatcharam

Copyright © 2013 Xianquan Zhan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Oxidative stress is extensively associated with tumorigenesis. A series of studies on stable tyrosine nitration as a marker of oxidative damage were performed in human pituitary and adenoma. This paper reviews published research on the mass spectrometry characteristics of nitropeptides and nitroproteomics of pituitary controls and adenomas. The methodology used for nitroproteomics, the current status of human pituitary nitroproteomics studies, and the future perspectives are reviewed. Enrichment of those low-abundance endogenous nitroproteins from human tissues or body fluid samples is the first important step for nitroproteomics studies. Mass spectrometry is the essential approach to determine the amino acid sequence and locate the nitrotyrosine sites. Bioinformatics analyses, including protein domain and motif analyses, are needed to locate the nitrotyrosine site within the corresponding protein domains/motifs. Systems biology techniques, including pathway analysis, are necessary to discover signaling pathway networks involving nitroproteins from the systematically global point of view. Future quantitative nitroproteomics will discover pituitary adenoma-specific nitroprotein(s). Structural biology techniques such as X-ray crystallography analysis will solidly clarify the effects of tyrosine nitration on structure and functions of a protein. Those studies will eventually address the mechanisms and biological functions of tyrosine nitration in pituitary tumorigenesis and will discover nitroprotein biomarkers for pituitary adenomas and targets for drug design for pituitary adenoma therapy.