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Figure 2: Nested case-control study design to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic potential of markers of field cancerization (FC) at the time of biopsy. Discrimination between positive and negative (or affected by benign prostatic hyperplasia, BPH) initial or repeat biopsies tests whether FC predicts the presence of cancer (left grey box). Discrimination between subsequently negative and positive biopsies after initial or repeat negative biopsies tests whether FC predicts development of cancer (bottom grey box). Prediction of cancer progression in initially positive biopsies indicating low-risk cancer during active surveillance tests whether FC is prognostic (top grey box).