Table 1: Molecular markers that are in accordance with the definition of prostate field cancerization reported in the literature1.

Type of molecular alteration2Specific molecular markerReference3

Cytomorphological changesNuclear chromatin structure[34]
Nuclear chromatin structure[35]
Nuclear texture[36]
Epigenetic changesMethylation of GSTp1 and RARβ2 [37]4
Methylation of GSTp1, RARβ2, and APC [38]
Methylation of RASSF1A [39]
Methylation of RARβ2, APC, and RASSF1A [40]
Methylation of HIN-1 [41]
Genomic DNA changesProfile of infrared spectroscopy[42]
Profile of infrared spectroscopy[43]
Profile of infrared spectroscopy[44]
Telomere attrition[45]
Telomere attrition[46]
TMPRSS2-ERG fusion[47]
Content of DNA[32]
Telomere attrition[48]
Telomere attrition[49]
Telomere attrition[50]4
Mitochondrial DNA changesMutation[51]
Deletion[52]
Deletion[53]
Gene expression changesGene expression signature (671 genes)[54]
cDNA microarrays (12,625 probes)[55]
Noncoding RNA from PCA3 gene[56]
Panel of 8 genes[57]
Gene fusion transcript of TMPRSS2-ERG[58]
cDNA microarrays (37,123 probes)[59]
PSCA[60]
Protein expression changesPS2[61]
Androgen receptor[62]4
COX-2[63]
Androgen receptor[64]4
Phosphorylated Akt-1[65]
EPCA [66]
EPCA [67]
Calcium channel P2X7 [33]
AMACR [68]
Ki67 and MCM-2 [69]
Activated Akt [70]
EPCA [71]
AMACR [72]
β-catenin [73]
Androgen receptor [74]4
Expression of Akt [75]
PDGFRβ [76]4
Phosporylated EGFR [77]
EGR-1 and IGF1R [78]
UDP-glucose dehydrogenase [79]
Prostate tumor overexpressed 1 [80]
EGR-1 and FAS [81]
NMR spectraMetabolites [82]

1Combined and updated from Nonn et al., 2009 [5] and Halin et al., 2011 [4].
2Additional markers of field cancerization that are not strictly molecular in nature, but rather represent cellular changes or adaptations to the presence of the tumor are cell morphological architecture [83], increased numbers of mast cells and macrophages [8486], and enhanced microvessel density [87, 88].
3Within a type of molecular alteration group, the studies are reported in chronological order; references are original articles only; additional review articles are listed in the text.
4Reported in stromal cells.