|Table 1: Molecular markers that are in accordance with the definition of prostate field cancerization reported in the literature1.|
|1Combined and updated from Nonn et al., 2009  and Halin et al., 2011 .|
2Additional markers of field cancerization that are not strictly molecular in nature, but rather represent cellular changes or adaptations to the presence of the tumor are cell morphological architecture , increased numbers of mast cells and macrophages [84–86], and enhanced microvessel density [87, 88].
3Within a type of molecular alteration group, the studies are reported in chronological order; references are original articles only; additional review articles are listed in the text.
4Reported in stromal cells.