- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 826254, 11 pages
Relationship of Dietary Intake of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids with Risk of Prostate Cancer Development: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies and Review of Literature
1Institute of Urology, St. Luke's Medical Center, 1102 Quezon City, Philippines
2ENT Department, St. Luke's Medical Center, 1102 Quezon City, Philippines
3Preventive and Community Medicine, St. Luke's College of Medicine, 1102 Quezon City, Philippines
Received 8 March 2012; Accepted 9 July 2012
Academic Editor: Lynnette Ferguson
Copyright © 2012 Michael E. Chua et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- A. Jemal, F. Bray, M. M. Center, J. Ferlay, E. Ward, and D. Forman, “Global cancer statistics,” CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 69–90, 2011.
- W. E. M. Lands, “Dietary fat and health: the evidence and the politics of prevention: careful use of dietary fats can improve life and prevent disease,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1055, pp. 179–192, 2005.
- J. M. Chan, M. J. Stampfer, J. Ma, P. H. Gann, J. M. Gaziano, and E. L. Giovannucci, “Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the physicians' health study,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 549–554, 2001.
- I. M. Berquin, Y. Min, R. Wu et al., “Modulation of prostate cancer genetic risk by omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 117, no. 7, pp. 1866–1875, 2007.
- L. Hooper, R. L. Thompson, R. A. Harrison et al., “Risks and benefits of omega 3 fats for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review,” British Medical Journal, vol. 332, no. 7544, pp. 752–755, 2006.
- I. A. Brouwer, “Omega-3 PUFA: good or bad for prostate cancer?” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 79, no. 3–5, pp. 97–99, 2008.
- L. K. Dennis, L. G. Snetselaar, B. J. Smith, R. E. Stewart, and M. E. C. Robbins, “Problems with the assessment of dietary fat in prostate cancer studies,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 160, no. 5, pp. 436–444, 2004.
- P. Astorg, “Dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk: a review of epidemiological and experimental evidence,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 367–386, 2004.
- A. G. Schuurman, P. A. van den Brandt, E. Dorant, H. A. M. Brants, and R. A. Goldbohm, “Association of energy and fat intake with prostate carcinoma risk,” Cancer, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 1019–1027, 1999.
- D. E. Laaksonen, J. A. Laukkanen, L. Niskanen et al., “Serum linoleic and total polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to prostate and other cancers: a population-based cohort study,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 444–450, 2004.
- M. F. Leitzmann, M. J. Stampfer, D. S. Michaud et al., “Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer,” The American journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 204–216, 2004.
- D. O. Koralek, U. Peters, G. Andriole et al., “A prospective study of dietary alpha-linolenic acid and the risk of prostate cancer (United States),” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 783–791, 2006.
- E. Giovannucci, Y. Liu, E. A. Platz, M. J. Stampfer, and W. C. Willett, “Risk factors for prostate cancer incidence and progression in the health professionals follow-up study,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 121, no. 7, pp. 1571–1578, 2007.
- M. L. Neuhouser, M. J. Barnett, A. R. Kristal et al., “(n-6) PUFA increase and dairy foods decrease prostate cancer risk in heavy smokers,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 137, no. 7, pp. 1821–1827, 2007.
- S.-Y. Park, S. P. Murphy, L. R. Wilkens, B. E. Henderson, and L. N. Kolonel, “Fat and meat intake and prostate cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 121, no. 6, pp. 1339–1345, 2007.
- P. Wallström, A. Bjartell, B. Gullberg, H. Olsson, and E. Wirfält, “A prospective study on dietary fat and incidence of prostate cancer (Malmö, Sweden),” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1107–1121, 2007.
- J. E. Chavarro, M. J. Stampfer, M. N. Hall, H. D. Sesso, and J. Ma, “A 22-y prospective study of fish intake in relation to prostate cancer incidence and mortality,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 1297–1303, 2008.
- L. D. Saunders, G. M. Soomro, J. Buckingham, G. Jamtvedt, and P. Raina, “Assessing the methodological quality of nonrandomized intervention studies,” Western Journal of Nursing Research, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 223–237, 2003.
- J. P. T. Higgins and S. Green, Eds., Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0, The Cochrane Collaboration, Melbourne, Australia, 2011.
- S. Greenland, “Quantitative methods in the review of epidemiologic literature,” Epidemiologic Reviews, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–30, 1987.
- D. B. Petitti, Meta-Analysis, Decision Analysis, and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: Methods for Quantitative Synthesis in Medicine, Chapter 7, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1994.
- M. Egger, G. D. Smith, M. Schneider, and C. Minder, “Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test,” British Medical Journal, vol. 315, no. 7109, pp. 629–634, 1997.
- E. Giovannucci, E. B. Rimm, G. A. Colditz et al., “A prospective study of dietary fat and risk of prostate cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 85, no. 19, pp. 1571–1579, 1993.
- K. Augustsson, D. S. Michaud, E. B. Rimm et al., “A prospective study of intake of fish and marine fatty acids and prostate cancer,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 64–67, 2003.
- M. Carayol, P. Grosclaude, and C. Delpierre, “Prospective studies of dietary alpha-linolenic acid intake and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 347–355, 2010.
- J. R. Hibbeln, L. R. G. Nieminen, T. L. Blasbalg, J. A. Riggs, and W. E. M. Lands, “Healthy intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: estimations considering worldwide diversity,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 83, supplement 6, pp. 1483S–1493S, 2006.
- J. A. Simon, Y. H. Chen, and S. Bent, “The relation of α-linolenic acid to the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, supplement 5, pp. 1558S–1564S, 2009.
- K. M. Szymanski, D. C. Wheeler, and L. A. Mucci, “Fish consumption and prostate cancer risk: a review and meta-analysis,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 1223–1233, 2010.
- W. Demark-Wahnefried, T. J. Polascik, S. L. George et al., “Flaxseed supplementation (not dietary fat restriction) reduces prostate cancer proliferation rates in men presurgery,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 3577–3587, 2008.
- V. L. Freeman, M. Meydani, S. Yong et al., “Prostatic levels of fatty acids and the histopathology of localized prostate cancer,” Journal of Urology, vol. 164, no. 6, pp. 2168–2172, 2000.