Table 1: Summary of reported galectin functions in prostate cancers.

GalectinTumor cell growth/survival/apoptosisMetastasisImmune response
In vitro In vivo In vitro In vivo In vitro In vivo

Gal-1Promotes apoptosis in LNCaP [21]
O-glycosylation protects PCa cell from Gal-1-induced apoptosis [22]
Promotes tubulogenesis [23]
Gal-1 principal inducer of neovascularization [23]Promotes cell adhesion to ECM, EC [24, 25]
Osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation, effects inhibited by IGF [26]
?Invasion of T cell in matrigel assays and adhesion of T cell to Gal-1-expressing EC [27]?

Gal-3Promotes apoptosis or survival depending of cell subcellular localization or cell type [2830]
Drug resistance [31, 32]
Gal-3 as inducer of angiogenesis [33]Interaction with blood vessel allowing metastasis process such as arrest in certain organs [34, 35]
PCa cell with preferential binding to HBME through collagen XXIII and Gal-3 could explain bone metastasis [36, 37]
Anti-Gal-3 Abs or MCP inhibits spontaneous metastasis in Copenhagen rat-injected Dunning rat PCa cells [38], influences bone metastasis as indirect inhibition of Gal-3, and inhibits skeleton metastasis after Luc-PC-3 intracardiac injection [39]

Using Gal-3 inhibitors inhibits tumor growth or lung metastasis [33, 40, 41]
??

Gal-8Exclusive expression at the neoplasic stage in prostate tissue (PCTA-1); links to integrin to inhibit cell adhesion [42]?Links to integrin to inhibit cell adhesion and promote metastasis and cell spreading. In contrary, in soluble form Gal-8 promotes cell-adhesion to ECM [43]???

Gal-4Gal-4 as inducer of tubulogenesis [33]?????

Gal-9Gal-9 as inducer of tubulogenesis [33]?????

Gal-12??????

Others Gals??????