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Prostate Cancer
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 539680, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/539680
Review Article

Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer: The State of Play

1Department of Surgery, Royal Melbourne Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Level 5 Clinical Sciences Building, Parkville, Melbourne, VIC 3050, Australia
2Dame Roma Mitchell Cancer Research Laboratories, The University of Adelaide, P.O. Box 14, Rundle Mall, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia

Received 28 September 2012; Accepted 5 February 2013

Academic Editor: Jostein Halgunset

Copyright © 2013 Nikhil Sapre and Luke A. Selth. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

MicroRNAs are key regulators of gene expression and play critical roles in both normal physiology and pathology. Recent research has demonstrated that these molecules are present in body fluids, such as serum, plasma, and urine, and can be readily measured using a variety of techniques. More importantly, emerging evidence suggests that circulating or urine miRNAs are useful indicators of disease. Here, we consider the potential utility of such miRNAs as noninvasive biomarkers of prostate cancer, a disease that would benefit substantially from novel diagnostic and prognostic tools. The studies aimed at identifying diagnostic, prognostic, and/or predictive miRNAs for prostate cancer are summarised and reviewed. Finally, practical considerations that will influence the translation of this recent research into clinical implementation are discussed.