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Figure 1: Androgen receptor (AR) signaling in prostate cancer. (a) Schematic representation of the AR gene, highlighting some major AR mutations and their exon localization. (b) Schematic representation of AR protein structure with indication of its functional domains. (c) AR-mediated signaling pathway. The androgen-receptor (AR) signaling pathway begins with the translocation of the testosterone to the cytoplasm, where it can be converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and then promote the receptor dimerization and its further migration to the nucleus. A variety of signals, including PTEN-dependent downregulation, can also merge to AR stabilization and further activation (as indicated).