Prostate Cancer http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Robotic Prostatectomy Has a Superior Outcome in Larger Prostates and PSA Density Is a Strong Predictor of Biochemical Recurrence Mon, 15 Dec 2014 07:53:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/763863/ Objectives. The aims of this study were to compare the outcomes of robotic assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) between patients who had larger (≥75 g) and smaller (<75 g) prostates and to evaluate the performance of PSA density (PSAD) in determining the oncological outcome of surgery. Methods and Materials. 344 patients who underwent RALP at a single institution were included in the study. Preoperative risk factors and postoperative, oncological outcomes, erectile function, and continence status were recorded prospectively. Results. During a mean follow-up of 20 months, biochemical recurrence was observed in 15 patients (4.3%). Prostate size ≥75 g was associated with lower Gleason score on final pathology and lower pathological stage but an increased length of hospital stay . PSAD on binary logistic regression independently predicted biochemical recurrence (BCR) when defined as postoperative PSA >0.1 and PSA >0.2 . In both instances PSA was no longer a significant independent predictor. Conclusions. RALP in large prostates (≥75 g, <150 g) is as safe as RALP in smaller prostates and is associated with a lower pathological grade and stage. Higher PSAD is independently associated with BCR and is superior to PSA as a predictor of BCR after RALP. S. Bishara, N. Vasdev, T. Lane, G. Boustead, and J. Adshead Copyright © 2014 S. Bishara et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Efficacy and Tolerability of Abdominal Once-Yearly Histrelin Acetate Subcutaneous Implants in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer Thu, 04 Dec 2014 08:54:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/490315/ Objectives. Long-term assessment of the efficacy and tolerability of subcutaneous abdominal histrelin acetate implants that have been inserted for more than two years. Materials and Methods. Retrospective data collected over a six-year period at a single center from charts of 113 patients who received the subcutaneous abdominal histrelin acetate implant. Results. Following insertion of the first implant, 92.1% and 91.8% of patients had a serum testosterone level of ≤30 ng/dL at 24 and 48 weeks, respectively. Serum testosterone levels remained at <30 ng/dL for 96% of patients at two years and for 100% of patients at 3, 4, and 5 years. The testosterone levels remained significantly less than baseline . Six patients (5.3%) had androgen-independent progression when followed up on the long term, increasing the mean serum PSA at 3, 4, and 5 years to 35.0 µg/L , 30.7 µg/L , and 132.9 µg/L , respectively. The mean serum PSA was significantly greater than baseline during these years . Eight patients (7.1%) experienced minor, but not serious, adverse events from the histrelin acetate. Conclusion. Subcutaneous abdominal histrelin acetate implants are an effective long-term and well-tolerated administration method for treating patients with advanced prostate cancer. Sean Woolen, Cameron Holzmeyer, Emily Nesbitt, and Paul F. Siami Copyright © 2014 Sean Woolen et al. All rights reserved. CHEK2∗1100delC Mutation and Risk of Prostate Cancer Thu, 06 Nov 2014 08:10:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/294575/ Although the causes of prostate cancer are largely unknown, previous studies support the role of genetic factors in the development of prostate cancer. CHEK2 plays a critical role in DNA replication by responding to double-stranded breaks. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of the role of a genetic variant, 1100delC, of CHEK2 on prostate cancer risk and discuss the implication for potential translation of this knowledge into clinical practice. Currently, twelve articles that discussed CHEK2∗1100delC and its association with prostate cancer were identified. Of the twelve prostate cancer studies, five studies had independent data to draw conclusive evidence from. The pooled results of OR and 95% CI were 1.98 (1.23–3.18) for unselected cases and 3.39 (1.78–6.47) for familial cases, indicating that CHEK2∗1100delC mutation is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Screening for CHEK2∗1100delC should be considered in men with a familial history of prostate cancer. Victoria Hale, Maren Weischer, and Jong Y. Park Copyright © 2014 Victoria Hale et al. All rights reserved. Robotic Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Previous Prostate Surgery and Radiotherapy Wed, 09 Jul 2014 12:01:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/367675/ Herein, we will review the available literature about robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in patients who have undergone prostate surgery or radiotherapy. Current data about this topic consists of small case series with limited follow-up. Despite being technically demanding, robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) can be considered feasible in either setting. Prostate surgery or prostatic irradiation should not be considered as a contraindication for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Nevertheless, patient counseling about the possible complications and the need for reintervention is of extreme importance in this patient population. Early oncologic and functional results of RARP performed in case of radiorecurrent prostate cancer look promising. Regarding postprostate surgery RARP, some series have reported comparable results, while some have demonstrated more inferior outcomes than those of naive cases. In order to assess the exact functional and oncologic outcome of RARP in patients with previous prostate surgery and radiotherapy, studies enrolling higher number of patients and providing longer follow-up data are needed. Ömer Acar and Tarık Esen Copyright © 2014 Ömer Acar and Tarık Esen. All rights reserved. Role of p73 Dinucleotide Polymorphism in Prostate Cancer and p73 Protein Isoform Balance Sun, 06 Jul 2014 07:14:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/129582/ Background. Molecular markers for prostate cancer (PCa) risks are currently lacking. Here we address the potential association of a dinucleotide polymorphism (DNP) in exon 2 of the p73 gene with PCa risk/progression and discern any disruption of p73 protein isoforms levels in cells harboring a p73 DNP allele. Methods. We investigated the association between p73 DNP genotype and PCa risk/aggressiveness and survival by fitting logistic regression models in 1,292 incident cases and 682 controls. Results. Although we detected no association between p73 DNP and PCa risk, a significant inverse relationship between p73 DNP and PCa aggressiveness (AT/AT + GC/AT versus GC/GC, OR = 0.55, 95%Cl = 0.31–0.99) was detected. Also, p73 DNP is marginally associated with overall death (dominant model, HR = 0.76, 95%Cl = 0.57–1.00, ) as well as PCa specific death (HR = 0.69, 95%Cl = 0.45–1.06, ). Western blot analyses for p73 protein isoforms indicate that cells heterozygous for the p73 DNP have lower levels of ∆Np73 relative to TAp73 (). Conclusions. Our findings are consistent with an association between p73 DNP and low risk for PCa aggressiveness by increasing the expressed TAp73/∆Np73 protein isoform ratio. L. Michael Carastro, Hui-Yi Lin, Hyun Y. Park, Donghwa Kim, Selina Radlein, Kaia K. Hampton, Ardeshir Hakam, Babu Zachariah, Julio Pow-Sang, and Jong Y. Park Copyright © 2014 L. Michael Carastro et al. All rights reserved. Single High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Session as a Whole Gland Primary Treatment for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: 10-Year Outcomes Thu, 19 Jun 2014 10:56:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/186782/ Objectives. To assess the treatment outcomes of a single session of whole gland high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa). Methods. Response rates were defined using the Stuttgart and Phoenix criteria. Complications were graded according to the Clavien score. Results. At a median follow-up of 94months, 48 (44.4%) and 50 (46.3%) patients experienced biochemical recurrence for Phoenix and Stuttgart definition, respectively. The 5- and 10-year actuarial biochemical recurrence free survival rates were 57% and 40%, respectively. The 10-year overall survival rate, cancer specific survival rate, and metastasis free survival rate were 72%, 90%, and 70%, respectively. Preoperative high risk category, Gleason score, preoperative PSA, and postoperative nadir PSA were independent predictors of oncological failure. 24.5% of patients had self-resolving LUTS, 18.2% had urinary tract infection, and 18.2% had acute urinary retention. A grade 3b complication occurred in 27 patients. Pad-free continence rate was 87.9% and the erectile dysfunction rate was 30.8%. Conclusion. Single session HIFU can be alternative therapy for patients with low risk PCa. Patients with intermediate risk should be informed about the need of multiple sessions of HIFU and/or adjuvant treatments and HIFU performed very poorly in high risk patients. Ksenija Limani, Fouad Aoun, Serge Holz, Marianne Paesmans, Alexandre Peltier, and Roland van Velthoven Copyright © 2014 Ksenija Limani et al. All rights reserved. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006) and Mortality Rates (1997–2009) Thu, 15 May 2014 11:56:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/419801/ Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006) and data on mortality (1997–2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. Chantal Babb, Margaret Urban, Danuta Kielkowski, and Patricia Kellett Copyright © 2014 Chantal Babb et al. All rights reserved. Urodynamic Evaluation after High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Patients with Prostate Cancer Thu, 15 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/462153/ This prospective study assesses the impact of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on lower urinary tract by comparing pre- and postoperative symptoms and urodynamic changes. Thirty consecutive patients with clinically organ-confined prostate cancer underwent urodynamic study before HIFU and then at 3–6 months after surgery. Continence status and symptoms were analyzed by means of International Prostate Symptoms Score IPSS and International Index Erectile Function IIEF5. As a result, there were a significant improvement in bladder outlet, maximum flow at uroflowmetry, and reduction in postvoid residual PVR at 6-month follow-up and a concomitant significant reduction of detrusor pressure at opening and at maximum flow. De novo overactive bladder and impaired bladder compliance were detected in 10% of patients at 3 months, with progressive improvement at longer follow-up. Baseline prostate volume and length of the procedure were predictors of 6-month IPSS score and continence status. In conclusion, following HIFU detrusor overactivity, decreased bladder compliance and urge incontinence represent de novo dysfunction due to prostate and bladder neck injury during surgery. However, urodynamic study shows a progressive improvement in all storage and voiding patterns at 6-month follow-up. Patients with high prostate volume and long procedure length suffered from irritative symptoms even at long term. Luigi Mearini, Elisabetta Nunzi, Silvia Giovannozzi, Luca Lepri, Carolina Lolli, and Antonella Giannantoni Copyright © 2014 Luigi Mearini et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Transperineal Mapping Biopsy Results with Whole-Mount Radical Prostatectomy Pathology in Patients with Localized Prostate Cancer Sun, 11 May 2014 14:29:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/781438/ Objective. We sought to evaluate the accuracy of transperineal mapping biopsy (TMB) by comparing it to the pathology specimen of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized prostate cancer. Methods. From March 2007 to September 2009, 78 men at a single center underwent TMB; 17 of 78 subsequently underwent RP. TMB cores were grouped into four quadrants and matched to data from RP whole-mount slides. Gleason score, tumor location and volume, cross-sectional area, and maximal diameter were measured; sensitivity and specificity were assessed. Results. For the 17 patients who underwent RP, TMB revealed 12 (71%) had biopsy Gleason grades ≥ 3 + 4 and 13 (76%) had bilateral disease. RP specimens showed 14 (82%) had Gleason scores ≥ 3 + 4 and 13 (76%) had bilateral disease. Sensitivity and specificity of TMB for prostate cancer detection were 86% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72%–94%) and 83% (95% CI 62%–95%), respectively. Four quadrants negative for cancer on TMB were positive on prostatectomy, and six positive on TMB were negative on prostatectomy. Conclusion. TMB is a highly invasive procedure that can accurately detect and localize prostate cancer. These findings help establish baseline performance characteristics for TMB and its utility for organ-sparing strategies. Darren J. Katz, Rodrigo Pinochet, Kyle A. Richards, Guilherme Godoy, Kazuma Udo, Lucas Nogueira, Angel M. Cronin, Samson W. Fine, Peter T. Scardino, and Jonathon A. Coleman Copyright © 2014 Darren J. Katz et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Primary Zonal High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Prostate Cancer: Results of a Prospective Phase IIa Feasibility Study” Wed, 30 Apr 2014 12:47:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/640859/ Roland Van Velthoven, Fouad Aoun, Ksenija Limani, Krishna Narahari, Marc Lemort, and Alexandre Peltier Copyright © 2014 Roland Van Velthoven et al. All rights reserved. Increased aPKC Expression Correlates with Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Gleason Score and Tumor Stage in the Japanese Population Tue, 29 Apr 2014 09:51:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/481697/ Background. Levels of the protein kinase aPKC have been previously correlated with prostate cancer prognosis in a British cohort. However, prostate cancer incidence and progression rates, as well as genetic changes in this disease, show strong ethnic variance, particularly in Asian populations. Objective. The aim of this study was to validate association of aPKC expression with prostatic adenocarcinoma stages in a Japanese cohort. Methods. Tissue microarrays consisting of 142 malignant prostate cancer cases and 21 benign prostate tissues were subject to immunohistological staining for aPKC. aPKC staining intensity was scored by three independent pathologists and categorized as absent (0), dim (1+), intermediate (2+), and bright (3+). aPKC staining intensities were correlated with Gleason score and tumor stage. Results. Increased aPKC staining was observed in malignant prostate cancer, in comparison to benign tissue. Additionally, aPKC staining levels correlated with Gleason score and tumor stage. Our results extend the association of aPKC with prostate cancer to a Japanese population and establish the suitability of aPKC as a universal prostate cancer biomarker that performs consistently across ethnicities. Anthony S. Perry, Bungo Furusato, Raymond B. Nagle, and Sourav Ghosh Copyright © 2014 Anthony S. Perry et al. All rights reserved. Obesity and the Odds of Weight Gain following Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Tue, 22 Apr 2014 13:33:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/230812/ Background. Increasing body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased risk of mortality; however, quantifying weight gain in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PC) remains unexplored. Methods. Between 1995 and 2001, 206 men were enrolled in a randomized trial evaluating the survival difference of adding 6 months of ADT to radiation therapy (RT). BMI measurements were available in 171 men comprising the study cohort. The primary endpoint was weight gain of ≥10 lbs by 6-month followup. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess whether baseline BMI or treatment received was associated with this endpoint adjusting for known prognostic factors. Results. By the 6-month followup, 12 men gained ≥10 lbs, of which 10 (83%) received RT + ADT and, of these, 7 (70%) were obese at randomization. Men treated with RT as compared to RT + ADT were less likely to gain ≥10 lbs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.18 [95% CI: 0.04–0.89]; ), whereas this risk increased with increasing BMI (AOR: 1.15 [95% CI: 1.01–1.31]; ). Conclusions. Consideration should be given to avoid ADT in obese men with low- or favorable-intermediate risk PC where improved cancer control has not been observed, but shortened life expectancy from weight gain is expected. Lior Z. Braunstein, Ming-Hui Chen, Marian Loffredo, Philip W. Kantoff, and Anthony V. D'Amico Copyright © 2014 Lior Z. Braunstein et al. All rights reserved. Evaluating the Impact of PSA as a Selection Criteria for Nerve Sparing Radical Prostatectomy in a Screened Cohort Wed, 16 Apr 2014 09:34:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/395078/ Purpose. We investigated whether NS-RP increased risk of PSA failure and whether PSA should be included as a selection criterion for NS. Methods. We evaluated 357 consecutive men with screen-detected PC who underwent open RP without adjuvant radiotherapy between 9/11/2001 and 12/30/2008. Criteria for NS included Gleason score ≤3 + 4, percentage of positive biopsies (PPB) ≤50%, percentage of core involvement ≤50%, nonapical location, no perineural invasion, and no palpable disease on pre- or intraoperative exam but did not include a PSA threshold. Cox multivariable regression assessed whether increasing PSA or unilateral- or bilateral-NS versus non-NS-RP was associated with PSA failure adjusting for prognostic factors. Results. After a median follow-up of 3.96 years, 34 men sustained PSA failure (9.5%). Increasing PSA was significantly associated with increased risk of PSA failure in the interaction model (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 1.09 [95% CI: 1.03–1.16]; ), whereas unilateral (AHR: 1.24 [95% CI: 0.36–4.34]; ) or bilateral NS (AHR: 0.41 [95% CI: 0.06–2.59]; ) versus non-NS RP was not. Conclusion. NS-RP in a screened cohort did not increase risk of PSA failure using NS criteria not including PSA. Shyam K. Tanguturi, Ming-Hui Chen, Marian Loffredo, Jerome P. Richie, and Anthony V. D’Amico Copyright © 2014 Shyam K. Tanguturi et al. All rights reserved. Pharmacokinetic and Biodistribution Assessment of a Near Infrared-Labeled PSMA-Specific Small Molecule in Tumor-Bearing Mice Mon, 07 Apr 2014 13:57:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/104248/ Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men and often requires surgery. Use of near infrared (NIR) technologies to perform image-guided surgery may improve accurate delineation of tumor margins. To facilitate preclinical testing of such outcomes, here we developed and characterized a PSMA-targeted small molecule, YC-27. IRDye 800CW was conjugated to YC-27 or an anti-PSMA antibody used for reference. Human 22Rv1, PC3M-LN4, and/or LNCaP prostate tumor cells were exposed to the labeled compounds. In vivo targeting and clearance properties were determined in tumor-bearing mice. Organs and tumors were excised and imaged to assess probe localization. YC-27 exhibited a dose dependent increase in signal upon binding. Binding specificity and internalization were visualized by microscopy. In vitro and in vivo blocking studies confirmed YC-27 specificity. In vivo, YC-27 showed good tumor delineation and tissue contrast at doses as low as 0.25 nmole. YC-27 was cleared via the kidneys but bound the proximal tubules of the renal cortex and epididymis. Since PSMA is also broadly expressed on the neovasculature of most tumors, we expect YC-27 will have clinical utility for image-guided surgery and tumor resections. Joy L. Kovar, Lael L. Cheung, Melanie A. Simpson, and D. Michael Olive Copyright © 2014 Joy L. Kovar et al. All rights reserved. Burden of Illness in Prostate Cancer Patients with a Low-to-Moderate Risk of Progression: A One-Year, Pan-European Observational Study Thu, 13 Mar 2014 09:58:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/472949/ Objective. To assess the impact of low-to-moderate risk prostate cancer on patients’ quality of life (QoL) at diagnosis and within the first year of treatment. Subjects and Methods. Men () aged 50–75 years with prostate cancer (Gleason score , PSA  ng/mL and clinical staging T1c–T2b) were enrolled in five European countries. Patients completed five questionnaires, including EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire—Prostate Cancer 25 (QLQ-PR25) and EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire—Cancer 30 (QLQ-C30). Questionnaires were completed at baseline, at 3 months and 12 months after starting treatment. The primary endpoint was the change in QLQ-PR25 urinary symptoms subscale score from baseline to the assessment at 3 months. Results. Mean (SD) age was 65.0 (5.7) years and 400 (66%) men had Gleason score ≤6 prostate cancer. The most frequently used initial treatment was radical prostatectomy (71% of patients). QLQ-PR25 urinary symptoms subscale score was significantly increased at 3 months (), indicating that urinary symptoms worsened after treatment. The score was lower at 12 months than at 3 months, but it was still significantly higher than at baseline (). Hormonal treatment-related symptoms, sexual functioning, and sexual activity scores significantly worsened at 3 and 12 months (all ). For the QLQ-C30 questionnaire, global health status/QoL score significantly decreased at month 3 but was not different from baseline by month 12. Scales for physical, role, and social functioning, and fatigue, showed significant deterioration at 3 and 12 months. Conclusions. Low-to-moderate risk prostate cancer may have a substantial effect on patients’ QoL within one year following treatment. Cesare Selli, Anders Bjartell, Javier Burgos, Matthew Somerville, Juan-Manuel Palacios, Laure Benjamin, Libby Black, and Ramiro Castro Copyright © 2014 Cesare Selli et al. All rights reserved. Does Statin or ASA Affect Survival When Prostate Cancer Is Treated with External Beam Radiation Therapy? Mon, 03 Mar 2014 10:08:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/184297/ Background. Prior studies evaluating the effect of statins or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on the survival of men receiving prostate cancer were treatment have reported conflicting results, and have not adjusted for comorbidity. Our aim is to investigate the influence of statins and ASA on prostate cancer survival, when comorbidity is adjusted for, in men treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. Methods. A cohort of 3851 patients with prostate cancer treated with curative EBRT ± androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) between 2000 and 2007. Stage, treatment, medication use, and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) scores were analyzed. Results. Median followup was 8.4 years. Mean age was 70.3 years. Neoadjuvant ADT was used in 67%. Statins were used in 23%, ASA in 24%, and both in 11%. Comorbidity scores were 0 in 65%, 1 in 25%, and ≥2 in 10% of patients. Statin and ASA use were associated with increased age and comorbidity. Although statin and ASA use were significantly associated with improved prostate cancer specific survival (PCSS) on univariate analysis, neither were on multivariate analysis. Conclusion. Neither statin nor ASA use impacted PCSS on multivariate competing risks analysis. Survival was impacted by increased comorbidity as well as statin and ASA use. J. Caon, M. Paquette, J. Hamm, and T. Pickles Copyright © 2014 J. Caon et al. All rights reserved. Natural History of Untreated Prostate Specific Antigen Radiorecurrent Prostate Cancer in Men with Favorable Prognostic Indicators Thu, 20 Feb 2014 09:39:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/912943/ Background and Purpose. Life expectancy data could identify men with favorable post-radiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure kinetics unlikely to require androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Materials and Methods. Of 206 men with unfavorable-risk prostate cancer in a randomized trial of radiation versus radiation and ADT, 53 experienced a PSA failure and were followed without salvage ADT. Comorbidity, age and established prognostic factors were assessed for relationship to death using Cox regression analyses. Results. The median age at failure, interval to PSA failure, and PSA doubling time were 76.6 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 71.8–79.3), 49.1 months (IQR: 37.7–87.4), and 25 months (IQR: 13.1–42.8), respectively. After a median follow up of 4.0 years following PSA failure, 45% of men had died, none from prostate cancer and no one had developed metastases. Both increasing age at PSA failure (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03–1.25; ) and the presence of moderate to severe comorbidity (HR: 12.5; 95% CI: 3.81–41.0; ) were significantly associated with an increased risk of death. Conclusions. Men over the age of 76 with significant comorbidity and a PSA doubling time >2 years following post-radiation PSA failure appear to be good candidates for observation without ADT intervention. Neil E. Martin, Ming-Hui Chen, Clair J. Beard, Paul L. Nguyen, Marian J. Loffredo, Andrew A. Renshaw, Philip W. Kantoff, and Anthony V. D’Amico Copyright © 2014 Neil E. Martin et al. All rights reserved. Cryotherapy for Primary Treatment of Prostate Cancer: Intermediate Term Results of a Prospective Study from a Single Institution Thu, 20 Feb 2014 07:25:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/571576/ Purpose. Published data about cryotherapy for prostate cancer (PC) treatment are based on case series with a lack of clinical trials and the inexistence of a validated definition of biochemical failure. A prospective study with standardized followup protocol was conducted in our institution. Material and Methods. Prospective study of a series of cases including 108 patients diagnosed with localized PC at clinical stage T1c-T2c treated by primary cryoablation and median followup of 61 months. Criteria of biochemical recurrence were unified according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO). End points were biochemical progression-free survival (BPFS), cancer-specific survival, and overall survival. Rate of complications was reported. Results. The BPFS for low-, medium-, and high-risk patients was 96.4%, 91.2%, and 62.2%, respectively. Cancer-specific survival was 98.1%. Overall survival reached 94.4%. Complications included incontinence in 5.6%, urinary tract obstruction in 1.9%, urethral sloughing in 5.6%, haematuria in 1.9%, perineal pain in 11.1%, and prostatorectal fistula in 0.9%. Erectile disfunction was found in 98.1%. Conclusions. Cryotherapy is an effective and minimally invasive treatment for primary PC in well-selected cases, with low surgical risk and good results in terms of BPFS, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival. S. Alvarez Rodríguez, F. Arias Fúnez, C. Bueno Bravo, R. Rodríguez-Patrón Rodríguez, E. Sanz Mayayo, V. Hevia Palacios, and F. J. Burgos Revilla Copyright © 2014 S. Alvarez Rodríguez et al. All rights reserved. DWI of Prostate Cancer: Optimal -Value in Clinical Practice Tue, 18 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/868269/ Aim. To compare the diagnostic performance of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) using -values of 1000 s/mm2 and 2000 s/mm2 at 3 Tesla (T) for the evaluation of clinically significant prostate cancer. Matherials and Methods. Seventy-eight prostate cancer patients underwent a 3T MRI scan followed by radical prostatectomy. DWI was performed using -values of 0, 1000, and 2000 s/mm2 and qualitatively analysed by two radiologists. ADC maps were obtained at -values of 1000 and 2000 s/mm2 and quantitatively analyzed in consensus. Results. For diagnosis of 78 prostate cancers the accuracy of DWI for the young reader was significantly greater at = 2000 s/mm2 for the peripheral zone (PZ) but not for the transitional zone (TZ). For the experienced reader, DWI did not show significant differences in accuracy between -values of 1000 and 2000 s/mm2. The quantitative analysis in the PZ and TZ was substantially superimposable between the two -values, albeit with a higher accuracy with a -value of 2000 s/mm2. Conclusions. With a -value of 2000 s/mm2 at 3T both readers differentiated clinical significant cancer from benign tissue; higher -values can be helpful for the less experienced readers. Guglielmo Manenti, Marco Nezzo, Fabrizio Chegai, Erald Vasili, Elena Bonanno, and Giovanni Simonetti Copyright © 2014 Guglielmo Manenti et al. All rights reserved. Evidence Suggesting That Obesity Prevention Measures May Improve Prostate Cancer Outcomes Using Data from a Prospective Randomized Trial Thu, 13 Feb 2014 13:48:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/478983/ Purpose. Increasing body mass index (BMI) is associated with higher risk prostate cancer (PC) at presentation. Whether increasing BMI also prompts earlier salvage androgen suppression therapy (sAST) is unknown. Materials and Methods. Between 1995 and 2001, 206 men with unfavorable risk PC were treated with radiation therapy (RT) or RT and six months of androgen suppression therapy in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). 108 sustained PSA failure; 51 received sAST for PSA approaching 10 ng/mL; 49 with BMI data comprised the study cohort. A multivariable Cox regression analysis identified pretreatment factors associated with earlier sAST receipt. Results. Increasing BMI prompted earlier sAST (median years: 3.7 for overweight/obese, 6.9 for normal weight; adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.18; ) as did high versus other risk PC (median: 3.2 versus 5.2 years; AHR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.83; ). Increasing median time to sAST was observed for overweight/obese men with high versus other risk PC and for normal-weight men with any risk PC being 2.3, 4.6, and 6.9 years, respectively ( for trend). Conclusion. Increasing BMI was associated with earlier sAST. A RCT evaluating whether BMI reduction delays or eliminates need for sAST is warranted. Ravi A. Chandra, Ming-Hui Chen, Danjie Zhang, Marian Loffredo, and Anthony V. D’Amico Copyright © 2014 Ravi A. Chandra et al. All rights reserved. Primary Zonal High Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Prostate Cancer: Results of a Prospective Phase IIa Feasibility Study Thu, 23 Jan 2014 16:31:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2014/756189/ Aims. In this study we report our results with storage of cryopreserved semen intended for preservation and subsequent infertility treatment in men with testicular cancer during the last 18 years. Methods. Cryopreserved semen of 523 men with testicular cancer was collected between October 1995 and the end of December 2012. Semen of 34 men (6.5%) was used for fertilization of their partners. They underwent 57 treatment cycles with cryopreserved, fresh, and/or donor sperm. Results. A total of 557 men have decided to freeze their semen before cancer treatment. Seminoma was diagnosed in 283 men (54.1%) and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors in 240 men (45.9%). 34 patients who returned for infertility treatment underwent 46 treatment cycles with cryopreserved sperm. Totally 16 pregnancies were achieved, that is, 34.8% pregnancy rate. Conclusion. The testicular cancer survivors have a good chance of fathering a child by using sperm cryopreserved prior to the oncology treatment, even when it contains only limited number of spermatozoa. Roland Van Velthoven, Fouad Aoun, Ksenija Limani, Krishna Narahari, Marc Lemort, and Alexandre Peltier Copyright © 2014 Roland Van Velthoven et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Metastatic Prostate Cancer to the Skeleton Thu, 12 Dec 2013 11:27:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2013/418340/ Despite the clinical implication and high incidence of bone and spinal metastases, the molecular mechanisms behind prostate cancer metastasis to bone and spine are not well understood. In this review the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the highly metastatic phenotype of prostate cancer are discussed. Proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been shown to not only aid in the metastatic capabilities of prostate cancer but also encourage the colonization and growth of prostate tumour cells in the skeleton. The importance of VEGF in the complex process of prostate cancer dissemination to the skeleton is discussed, including its role in the development of the bone premetastatic niche, metastatic tumour cell recognition of bone, and bone remodeling. The expression of VEGF has also been shown to be upregulated in prostate cancer and is associated with clinical stage, Gleason score, tumour stage, progression, metastasis, and survival. Due to the multifaceted effect VEGF has on tumour angiogenesis, tumour cell proliferation, and bone destruction, therapies targeting the VEGF pathways have shown promising clinical application and are being investigated in clinical trials. Emma Roberts, Davina A. F. Cossigny, and Gerald M. Y. Quan Copyright © 2013 Emma Roberts et al. All rights reserved. Variation in HNF1B and Obesity May Influence Prostate Cancer Risk in African American Men: A Pilot Study Mon, 09 Dec 2013 16:27:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2013/384594/ Background. Prostate cancer (PCa) racial disparity is multifactorial, involving biological, sociocultural, and lifestyle determinants. We investigated the association between selected potentially functional polymorphisms (SNPs) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk in Black (AAM) and White (EAM) men. We further explored if these associations varied by the body mass index (BMI) and height. Methods. Age-matched DNA samples from 259 AAM and 269 EAM were genotyped for 10 candidate SNPs in 7 genes using the TaqMan allelic differentiation analysis. The dominant, recessive, and additive age-adjusted unconditional logistic regression models were fitted. Results. Three SNPs showed statistically significant associations with PCa risk: in AAM, HNF1B rs7501939 (, ) and rs4430796 (, ); in EAM, CTBP2 rs4962416 (, ). In addition, high BMI in AAM (, ) and height in EAM (, ) showed significant associations. Interestingly, HNF1B rs7501939 was associated with PCa exclusively in obese AAM (, ). Conclusion. Our results suggest that variation in the HNF1B may influence PCa risk in obese AAM. Ganna Chornokur, Ernest K. Amankwah, Stacy N. Davis, Catherine M. Phelan, Jong Y. Park, Julio Pow-Sang, and Nagi B. Kumar Copyright © 2013 Ganna Chornokur et al. All rights reserved. 3D versus 2D Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy: Higher Cancer Detection Rate in Clinical Practice Sun, 17 Nov 2013 09:00:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2013/783243/ Objectives. To compare prostate cancer detection rates of extended 2D versus 3D biopsies and to further assess the clinical impact of this method in day-to-day practice. Methods. We analyzed the data of a cohort of 220 consecutive patients with no prior history of prostate cancer who underwent an initial prostate biopsy in daily practice due to an abnormal PSA and/or DRE using, respectively, the classical 2D and the new 3D systems. All the biopsies were done by a single experienced operator using the same standardized protocol. Results. There was no significant difference in terms of age, total PSA, or prostate volume between the two groups. However, cancer detection rate was significantly higher using the 3D versus the 2D system, 50% versus 34% (). There was no statistically significant difference while comparing the 2 groups in term of nonsignificant cancer detection. Conclusion. There is reasonable evidence demonstrating the superiority of the 3D-guided biopsies in detecting prostate cancers that would have been missed using the 2D extended protocol. Alexandre Peltier, Fouad Aoun, Fouad El-Khoury, Eric Hawaux, Ksenija Limani, Krishna Narahari, Nicolas Sirtaine, and Roland van Velthoven Copyright © 2013 Alexandre Peltier et al. All rights reserved. Advances in Robotic-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy over Time Tue, 12 Nov 2013 09:54:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2013/902686/ Since the introduction of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP), robotics has become increasingly more commonplace in the armamentarium of the urologic surgeon. Robotic utilization has exploded across surgical disciplines well beyond the fields of urology and prostate surgery. The literature detailing technical steps, comparison of large surgical series, and even robotically focused randomized control trials are available for review. RALP, the first robot-assisted surgical procedure to achieve widespread use, has recently become the primary approach for the surgical management of localized prostate cancer. As a result, surgeons are constantly trying to refine and improve upon current technical aspects of the operation. Recent areas of published modifications include bladder neck anastomosis and reconstruction, bladder drainage, nerve sparing approaches and techniques, and perioperative and postoperative management including penile rehabilitation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in perioperative management and surgical technique for RALP. Emma F. P. Jacobs, Ronald Boris, and Timothy A. Masterson Copyright © 2013 Emma F. P. Jacobs et al. All rights reserved. Quantifying the Ki-67 Heterogeneity Profile in Prostate Cancer Thu, 03 Oct 2013 15:20:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2013/717080/ Background: Ki-67 is a robust predictive/prognostic marker in prostate cancer; however, tumor heterogeneity in prostate biopsy samples is not well studied. Methods: Using an MRI/US fusion device, biopsy cores were obtained systematically and by targeting when indicated by MRI. Prostate cores containing cancer from 77 consecutive men were analyzed. The highest Ki-67 was used to determine interprostatic variation. Ki-67 range (highest minus lowest) was used to determine intraprostatic and intralesion variation. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were evaluated in relation to Ki-67. Results: Interprostatic Ki-67 mean ± standard deviation (SD) values for NCCN low (L), intermediate (I), and high (H) risk patients were 5.1 ± 3.8%, 7.4 ± 6.8%, and 12.0 ± 12.4% (ANOVA ). Intraprostatic mean ± SD Ki-67 ranges in L, I, and H risk patients were 2.6 ± 3.6%, 5.3 ± 6.8%, and 10.9 ± 12.3% (ANOVA ). Intralesion mean ± SD Ki-67 ranges in L, I, and H risk patients were 1.1 ± 0.9%, 5.2 ± 7.9%, and 8.1 ± 10.8% (ANOVA ). ADC values at Ki-67 > and <7.1% were 860 ± 203 and 1036 ± 217, respectively (). Conclusions: High risk patients have significantly higher inter- and intraprostatic Ki-67 heterogeneity. This needs to be considered when utilizing Ki-67 clinically. Shane Mesko, Patrick Kupelian, D. Jeffrey Demanes, Jaoti Huang, Pin-Chieh Wang, and Mitchell Kamrava Copyright © 2013 Shane Mesko et al. All rights reserved. Galectins as New Prognostic Markers and Potential Therapeutic Targets for Advanced Prostate Cancers Tue, 24 Sep 2013 10:40:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2013/519436/ A better understanding of multimolecular interactions involved in tumor dissemination is required to identify new effective therapies for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Several groups investigated protein-glycan interactions as critical factors for crosstalk between prostate tumors and their microenvironment. This review both discusses whether the “galectin-signature” might serve as a reliable biomarker for the identification of patients with high risk of metastasis and assesses the galectin-glycan lattices as potential novel targets for anticancer therapies. The ultimate goal of this review is to convey how basic findings related to galectins could be in turn translated into clinical settings for patients with advanced PCa. Diego J. Laderach, Lucas Gentilini, Felipe M. Jaworski, and Daniel Compagno Copyright © 2013 Diego J. Laderach et al. All rights reserved. Bone-Targeted Therapies in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Evolving Paradigms Wed, 28 Aug 2013 08:29:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2013/210686/ Majority of patients with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) develop bone metastases which results in significant morbidity and mortality as a result of skeletal-related events (SREs). Several bone-targeted agents are either in clinical use or in development for prevention of SREs. Bisphosphonates were the first class of drugs investigated for prevention of SREs and zoledronic acid is the only bisphosphonate that is FDA-approved for this indication. Another bone-targeted agent is denosumab which is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the RANK-L thereby inhibiting RANK-L mediated bone resorption. While several radiopharmaceuticals were approved for pain palliation in mCRPC including strontium and samarium, alpharadin is the first radiopharmaceutical to show significant overall survival benefit. Contemporary therapeutic options including enzalutamide and abiraterone have effects on pain palliation and SREs as well. Other novel bone-targeted agents are currently in development, including the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors cabozantinib and dasatinib. Emerging therapeutics in mCRPC has resulted in great strides in preventing one of the most significant sources of complications of bone metastases. Joelle El-Amm, Ashley Freeman, Nihar Patel, and Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching Copyright © 2013 Joelle El-Amm et al. All rights reserved. A Pilot Study of Laparoscopic Doppler Ultrasound Probe to Map Arterial Vascular Flow within the Neurovascular Bundle during Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Wed, 19 Jun 2013 08:40:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2013/810715/ Purpose. To report on the feasibility of a new Laparoscopic Doppler ultrasound (LDU) technology to aid in identifying and preserving arterial blood flow within the neurovascular bundle (NVB) during robotic prostatectomy (RARP). Materials and Methods. Nine patients with normal preoperative potency and scheduled for a bilateral nerve-sparing procedure were prospectively enrolled. LDU was used to measure arterial flow at 6 anatomic locations alongside the prostate, and signal intensity was evaluated by 4 independent reviewers. Measurements were made before and after NVB dissection. Modifications in nerve-sparing procedure due to LDU use were recorded. Postoperative erectile function was assessed. Fleiss Kappa statistic was used to evaluate inter-rater agreement for each of the 12 measurements. Results. Analysis of Doppler signal intensity showed maintenance of flow in 80% of points assessed, a decrease in 16%, and an increase in 4%. Plane of NVB dissection was altered in 5 patients (56%) on the left and in 4 patients (44%) on the right. There was good inter-rater reliability for the 4 reviewers. Use of the probe did not significantly increase operative time or result in any complications. Seven (78%) patients had recovery of erections at time of the 8-month follow-up visit. Conclusions. LDU is a safe, easy to use, and effective method to identify local vasculature and anatomic landmarks during RARP, and can potentially be used to achieve greater nerve preservation. Ketan K. Badani, Edan Y. Shapiro, William T. Berg, Sarah Kaufman, Ari Bergman, Chris Wambi, Arindam RoyChoudhury, and Trushar Patel Copyright © 2013 Ketan K. Badani et al. All rights reserved. Skip Regulates TGF-β1-Induced Extracellular Matrix Degrading Proteases Expression in Human PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells Mon, 20 May 2013 15:27:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2013/398253/ Purpose. To determine whether Ski-interacting protein (SKIP) regulates TGF-β1-stimulated expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and uPA Inhibitor (PAI-1) in the androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell model. Materials and Methods. PC-3 prostate cancer cell line was used. The role of SKIP was evaluated using synthetic small interference RNA (siRNA) compounds. The expression of uPA, MMP-9, and PAI-1 was evaluated by zymography assays, RT-PCR, and promoter transactivation analysis. Results. In PC-3 cells TGF-β1 treatment stimulated uPA, PAI-1, and MMP-9 expressions. The knockdown of SKIP in PC-3 cells enhanced the basal level of uPA, and TGF-β1 treatment inhibited uPA production. Both PAI-1 and MMP-9 production levels were increased in response to TGF-β1. The ectopic expression of SKIP inhibited both TGF-β1-induced uPA and MMP-9 promoter transactivation, while PAI-1 promoter response to the factor was unaffected. Conclusions. SKIP regulates the expression of uPA, PAI-1, and MMP-9 stimulated by TGF-β1 in PC-3 cells. Thus, SKIP is implicated in the regulation of extracellular matrix degradation and can therefore be suggested as a novel therapeutic target in prostate cancer treatment. Victor Villar, Jelena Kocic, and Juan F. Santibanez Copyright © 2013 Victor Villar et al. All rights reserved.