Table 1: Demographic and disease characteristicsa.

All patients ( )Nonfallers ( )Fallers ( )Testb value

Age ( )72.0 (9.5)70.6 (9.6)74.2 (8.9)10.012
Male (%)52.547.953.220.884
Age at onset ( )63.9 (11,2)64.2 (11,1)63.5 (11.3)10.682
Disease duration ( )8.1 (6.4)6.4 (5.4)10.6 (7.0)3<0.001
PD subtype at onset20.012
 TDT ( , %)100 (62.5)69 (70.5)31 (50.0)
 ART ( , %) 60 (37.5)29 (29.5)31 (50.0)
Motor fluctuations ( , %) 46 (28.8)20 (20.4)26 (41.9)20.003
Dyskinesias ( , %)42 (26.3)18 (18.3)24 (38.7)20.004
Hoehn and Yahr2.6 (1.0)2.1(0,8)3.2 (1.0)1<0.001
Hoehn and Yahr ( , %)(I) 21 (13.1)
(II) 63 (39.4)
(III) 44 (27.5)
(IV) 23 (14.4)
(V) 9 (5.6)
(I) 18 (18.4)
(II) 52 (53.1)
(III) 21 (21,4)
(IV) 5 (5.1)
(V) 2 (2.0)
(I) 3 (4.8)
(II) 11 (17.7)
(III) 23 (37.1)
(IV) 18 (29.1)
(V) 7 (11.3)
UPDRS III28.8 (15.6)23.5 (13.0)37.2 (15.8)1<0.001
FOG ( , %)70 (43.8)30 (30.6)40 (64.5)2<0.001
FOG questionnaire4.5 (5.8)2.7 (4.6)7.4 (6.4)1<0.001
Activities of daily living73.7 (25.3)82.1 (19.0)60.4 (28.3)1<0.001
MMSE26.8 (4.7)27.6 (3.8)25.7 (5.8)30.038
Hypertension ( , %)62 (38,8)38 (38.7)24 (38.7)20.993
Diabetes ( , %)16 (10.0)7 (7.1)9 (14.4)20.130
Stroke ( , %)6 (3.7)2 (1.9)4 (6.0)20.208
Neuroimaging of CVD ( , %)35 (21.9)22 (22.4)13 (20.9)20.825
Symptomatic orthostasis ( , %)58 (36.2)33 (33.6)25 (24.8)20.416
Syncope ( , %)1 (0,6)01 (1.6)20.765

Abbreviations. PD: Parkinson disease; UPDRS: Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale; FOG: freezing of gait; MMSE: minimental State Examination; TDT: tremor-dominant subtype; ART: akinetic-rigid subtype; CVD: cerebrovascular disease.
aData are mean (SD), absolute numbers, and percentages.
bTest 1 = Mann-Whitney test; test 2 = χ 2 test; test 3 = independent samples -test.