Table 1: Participant characteristics.

PD ( )
Mean (SD)
HC ( )
Mean (SD)
t valuea value

Age65.7 (8.8)66.7 (9.5)0.39ns
Education (yrs)16.5 (2.3)16.5 (2.4)0.03ns
Male : female12 : 127 : 161.9bns
BDI7.0 (5.2)3.8 (4.2)c2.30.03
BAI8.0 (5.3)2.4 (3.4)c4.10.001
UPDRS—motor score24.6 (9.8)NA
Disease duration (yrs)7.0 (5.2)NA

-values unless otherwise indicated; -squared value, = 21; MMSE: modified Mini-Mental State Examination, scores converted to standard MMSE range; BDI: Beck Depression Inventory-II; BAI: Beck Anxiety Inventory; UPDRS: Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; NA: not applicable; ns: not significant.