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Figure 2: Induction of dopamine neurons from MSCs. After NICD introduction, MSCs become similar to NPCs, expressing the NPC markers nestin, GLAST, 3-PDGH, and neuroD. After cytokine stimulation (bFGF, CNTF and forskolin (FSK)), cells become postmitotic neurons expressing neuronal markers such as neurofilament, Tuj-1, and MAP-2. The administration of GDNF induces neurons to become dopamine neurons (TH), which are useful in the Parkinson’s disease model. Pictures from J Clin Invest 113 (2004) 1701–1710 and J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 29 (2009) 1409–1420 [17, 46].