Table 1: Cognitive training programs for patients with Parkinson’s disease (revised).
Length of treatment
Sinforiani et al.
12 1-hour sessions over 6 weeks
Computerized software for neuropsychological training
Attention, abstract reasoning, visuospatial
Babcock’s story, FAS, Raven matricies, Corsi-test, WCST, and Stroop
PD patients improved on Babcock’s story, FAS* and Raven matrices and at 6 months gains maintained. No differences from baseline on digit span, Corsi-test, WCST*, and Stroop after training.
Mohlman et al.
4 90-minute sessions over 4 weeks
Attention process training
Sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention
Digits backward, Stroop, Trail Making Test B, FAS
Improvement on digits backward, Stroop, Trail Making Test B, and FAS posttreatment. On average, self-ratings were given for “some” to “much” progress, enjoyment, and effort in the program.
Sammer et al.
Yes 12 cognitive training 14 standard treatment
10 30-minute sessions during a 3-4 week rehabilitation hospital stay.
Working memory tasks
Cognitive Training Group significant improvement on BADS*
París et al.
Yes 18 Cognitive Training Group 15 Control Group
12 45-minute sessions over 4 weeks
Computerized software and paper-pencil exercises
Attention/working memory, memory, psychomotor speed, executive functions and visuospatial
Digits forward, Stroop, ROCFT, semantic fluency, Trail Making B, TOL, PDQ-39 and CDS
Cognitive Training Group had more improvement than Control Group after treatment on the Digit Span Forward, Stroop Word Test, ROCFT, semantic fluency, Trail Making B, and TOL. No group differences on the PDQ-39 or CDS.
*Note: BADS: behavioral assessment of dysexecutive syndrome, FAS: phonological word fluency test; WCST: Wisconsin card sorting task; ROCFT: Rey-osterrieth complex figure test, TOL: tower of London, PDQ-39: Parkinson’s disease questionnaire-39; CDS: cognitive difficulties in ADLs.