Table 2: Demographic characteristics of the participants.

Parkinson’s diseaseHealthy controlsP value
(n = 102)(n = 49)

Gender, n (%)
 Female58 (56.9)25 (51.0)NS
 Male44 (43.1)24 (49.0)
Age, y, mean ± SD (range)70.3 ± 8.3 (48–91)70.7 ± 6.7 (59–85)NS
Bent forward flexion, n (%)23 (22.5)1 (0.02)<0.01
Heartburn, n (%)21 (20.6)4 (8.2)0.04
FSSG
 Mean ± SD (range)5.9 ± 7.2 (0–37)1.4 ± 3.1 (0–14)<0.0001
 More than 8, n (%)27 (26.5%)4 (8.2%)<0.01

NS: no significance; FSSG: the frequency scale for symptoms of GERD (GERD: gastroesophageal reflux disease).