Table 3: Demographic characteristics of Parkinson’s disease with or without GERD.

Parkinson’s disease with GERD (n = 27)Parkinson’s disease without GERD (n = 75)P value

Gender, n (%)
 Female16 (59.3)42 (56.0)NS
 Male11 (40.7)33 (44.0)NS
Age, y, mean ± SD (range)69.8 ± 9.5 (56–91)70.4 ± 7.9 (48–88)NS
Onset age, y, mean ± SD (range)62.6 ± 9.8 (38–78)64.5 ± 9.2 (40–83)NS
LEDD, mg, mean ± SD766.3 ± 449.9653.7 ± 334.0NS
MMSE, mean ± SD26.9 ± 2.826.4 ± 2.4NS
Heartburn, n (%)12 (44.4)10 (13.3)<0.001
Bent forward flexion, n (%)10 (37.0)13 (17.3)0.04
Disease duration, m, (range)91.6 ± 50.5 (12–241)76.2 ± 49.5 (6–218)NS
H&Y stage, mean ± SD2.2 ± 0.82.2 ± 0.9NS
 Stage 0, n (%) 0 (0) 2 (2.7)
 Stage 1, n (%) 5 (18.5) 10 (13.3)
 Stage 2, n (%) 13 (48.1) 40 (53.3)
 Stage 3, n (%) 8 (29.6) 17 (22.7)
 Stage 4, n (%) 1 (3.7) 6 (8.0)
UPDRS
 Total, mean ± SD (range)35.3 ± 13.9 (1–56)28.4 ± 14.3 (3–73)0.02
 Part II, mean ± SD (range)14.6 ± 7.0 (5–29)8.8 ± 6.2 (0–25)<0.001
 Part III, mean ± SD (range)17.0 ± 8.7 (4–36)17.6 ± 10.1 (0–46)NS
Wearing-off phenomenon, n (%)13 (48.1)16 (21.3)<0.01
PDQ-39, mean ± SD (range)56.3 ± 31.7 (3–134)29.8 ± 24.7 (0–108)<0.001
NMSS, mean ± SD (range)50.9 ± 34.0 (9–135)22.9 ± 22.4 (0–117)<0.0001

NS: no significance; GERD: gastroesophageal reflux disease; LEDD: levodopa equivalent daily dose; MMSE: Mini-mental Examination Test; H&Y: Hoehn and Yahr; UPDRS: unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale; PDQ-39: Parkinson’s disease questionnaire-39; NMSS: nonmotor symptom scale.