Table 1: Studies reporting falls prospectively in people with Parkinson’s disease.

First author
year
Participant
numbera
Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteriaFall definitionbReporting periodClassification of fallsNumber (%) of fallerscNumber of fallsdFalls/fallereFalls/faller/yrfFalls/
participant/
yrg

Allan
2009
[20]
40 (40)PD with dementia, >65 years oldComorbidities affecting ambulation, MMSE ≤ 8, significant visual impairment2, with or without LOC12 monthsFall Y/N36 (90%) ≥ 1 fallNRNRNR19

Allcock 2009 [15]164 (176)Living in the communityNR2, with or without LOC12 monthsFall Y/N
>1 fall
103 (63%) ≥ 1 fall
32 (20%) = 1 fall
71 (43%) > 1 fall
736
32
704*
7.1* 
1.0* 
9.9*
7.1* 
1.0* 
9.9*
4.5* 
0.2* 
4.3*

Ashburn 2007 and Ashburn
2008 [21, 22]
126 (142)Independently mobile, living in the community, >1 fall in the last 12 monthsGross cognitive impairment, pain affecting participation, acute medical condition requiring treatment1, 2, 36 monthsFall Y/N
>1 fall
95 (75%) ≥ 1 fall
18 (14%) = 1 fall
77 (61%) > 1 fall
639
18
621
6.7
1.0
8.1
13.5
2.0
16.1
10.3
0.3* 
10.0

Bloem
2001 [2]
59 (61)Independently mobile, living in the community, clear response to medication, adequate cognition (MMSE ≥ 24)Comorbidities affecting balance1, 2

6 months

Fall Y/N
>1 fall
30 (51%) ≥ 1 fall
15 (25%) = 1 fall
15 (25%) > 1 fall
205
15* 
190*
6.8* 
1.0* 
12.7*
13.7* 
2.0* 
25.3*
6.9* 
0.5* 
6.4*

Camicioli 2010 [23]52 (52)≥65 years oldDementia, unstable medical illness, other illness affecting thinking or memoryNR

12 months

Fall Y/N
>1 fall
21 (40%) ≥ 1 fall
6 (12%) = 1 fall
15 (29%) > 1 fall
76* 
6 
70*
3.6* 
1.0* 
4.7*
3.6* 
1.0* 
4.7*
1.5* 
0.1* 
1.3*

Chung
2010 [24]
19 (23)Responsive to levodopa, ≥2 falls or near falls per week, walk independently indoors with or without an aidFreezing, non-CNS contributors to falls, using cholinesterase inhibitors/
anticholinergic drugs or sedatives, MMSE < 25, any unstable medical condition
1, 2, 3

6 weeks Donezepil

6 weeks placebo
NR


NR

NR
104*

199*
NR

NR
NR

NR
47.3*

91*

Cole
2010 [25]
49 (49)NilRecent/recurrent injury or surgery, unable to ambulate independently with/without a walking aid, significant visual or cognitive impairment (MMSE < 24)1, 2, 3

12 months

Fall Y/N
>1 fall
32 (65%) ≥1 fall
11 (22%) = 1 fall
21(43%) > 1 fall
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR

Donovan
2011 [26]
23 (32)Independently mobile but requiring a walking aid, experience FOGSyncopal episode in prior 6 months, prior exposure to laserlight visual cueing device1, 2

1 to 2 months baseline

1 month after baseline
Fall Y/N

10 (43%) ≥ 1 fall

10 (43%) ≥ 1 fall
NR

NR

168*

110.2*
73*

47.9*

Fink
2005 [27]
49 (52)
men only
≥65 years old, living in the communityUnable to walk independently, bilateral hip replacementNR12 months>1 fall 14 (29%) > 1 fallNRNRNRNR

Foreman
2011 [28]
36 (36)>40 years old, independently mobile, gait hypokinesia present, sufficient cognition (MMSE > 23), taking Carbidopa or LevodopaHad surgical management of PD, uncontrolled motor fluctuations, comorbidities affecting mobility or balancePerson comes to rest on ground≥6 months
0 or 1 fall
>1 fall
22 (61%) > 1 fall
NR
NR
NR
NR

Goodwin
2011 [29]
122 (130) baseline

125 (130) post-baseline
>1 fall in previous year, walk independently indoors with or without a walking aid
Comorbidities affecting ability to exercise safely, unable to follow written or verbal instructions in English1, 2



10 weeks baseline



20 weeks after baseline
Fall Y/N



109 (84%) ≥ 1 fall



107 (86%) ≥ 1 fall
3453*



5488*
31.7*



51.3*
164.7*



133.4*
138.1*



114.2*

Gray
2000 [30]
118 (118)Able to stand and walk a short distance with or without a walking aidComorbidities that could predispose to falls, cognitive or writing deficit unless caregiver able to assist completion of falls diaryincluded “near falls” as a fall12 weeks



Fall Y/N
 1 fall
2 to 3 falls
4 to 5 falls
>5 falls
Unclear as near falls included


144


  
NR



  
NR



  
5.3* 




Hayashi 2010 [31]20 (20)Hoehn and Yahr Stage ≥ 2, responsive to levodopa, receiving regular outpatient treatment every monthOther neurological disease, significant dementia, or autonomic dysfunctionNR

12 months

Fall Y/N
>1 fall
>5 falls
13 (65%) > 1 fall
6 (30%) > 5 falls
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR

Kerr
2010 [16]
101 (106)Walking independently without aid, living in the community independentlyNil

1, 2, 3

6 months

Fall Y/N
>1 fall
48 (48%) ≥ 1 fall
24 (24%) = 1 fall
24 (24%) > 1 fall
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR

Latt
2009 [13]
113 (113)Living in the communityUnable to walk without aid, atypical Parkinsonism, insufficient cognition (MMSE < 24)1, 212 monthsFall Y/N51 (45%) ≥ 1 fall216042.4*42.4*19.1*

Lord
2003 [32]
57 (57)Living in residential elderly care facilityBedbound1, 2, 36–29 months

Followed until death or for at least 6 months
 Mean =  months
Fall Y/N

1 fall
2 to 4 falls
5 falls
36 (63%) ≥ 1 fall

6 (11%) = 1 fall
30 (53%) > 1 fall
NR for PD group alone
6
NR for PD group alone
NR

1.0
NR
NR
  
NR
NR
NR

NR
NR

Mak
2009 [33]
70 (72)Living in the community, 40–85 years old, medically stable, walk 3 × 6 m with or without a walking aidOther neurological conditions, communication deficit, impaired cognition (MMSE < 24), postural hypotension, visual disturbance, vestibular dysfunction, other comorbidities limiting locomotion or balance2, 3
12 months
0 or 1 fall
>1 fall
15 (21%) > 1 fall
NR
NR
NR
NR

Mak
2010 [18]
72 (74) Age ≥ 40 yrs, medically stable, walking independently with or without a walking aidOther neurological conditions, communication deficit, insufficient cognition (MMSE < 24), visual disturbance, vestibular dysfunction, comorbidities limiting locomotion or balance2, 3

12 months

1 fall
>1 fall
25 (35%) ≥ 1 fall
12 (17%) = 1 fall
13 (18%) > 1 fall
133
12 
121*
5.3* 
1.0* 
9.3*
5.3* 
1.0* 
9.3*
1.8* 
0.2* 
1.7*

Matinolli
2011 [34]
125 (125)Able to stand unsupportedPlaced in long-term institutional care1, 2




24 months




Fall Y/N
1 fall
2–5 falls
6–10 falls
11–100 falls
>208 falls
79 (63%) ≥ 1 fall
20 (16%) = 1 fall
59 (47%) > 1 fall


3125
20
3105* 


39.6* 
1.0* 
52.6* 

  
19.8* 
0.5* 
26.3* 


12.5* 
0.1* 
12.4* 


  

Nilsson
2011 [35]
19 (20)Idiopathic PD selected for bilateral DBS of the subthalamic nuclei, responsive to levodopa but with insufficient effect, normal brain MRISigns of dementia or severe cognitive decline, severe comorbidity, electrode replacement required within 6 months of surgery 1, 2 12 weeks prior to Sx


  12 months after Sx
Fall Y/N
>1 fall
10 (53%) ≥ 1 fall
5 (26%) = 1 fall 
5 (26%) > 1 fall  

14 (74%) ≥ 1 fall
2 (11%) = 1 fall
12 (63%) > 1 fall
83
5
78

204
2
202*
8.3* 
1.0 
15.6* 

14.6*  
2.0* 
16.8*
36.0* 
4.3* 
67.6* 

14.6* 
2.0* 
16.8*
18.9* 
1.1* 
17.8* 

10.7* 
0.1* 
10.6*

Smania
2010 [36]
55 (64)Hoehn and Yahr Stage 3 or 4, able to rise from chair or bed independently, MMSE > 23Other neurological conditions or conditions that could interfere with the study1, 2, 3




1 month
Baseline

1 month
post

1 month follow-up
NR





NR


NR


NR
1415* 


1329* 


1337*
NR
  

NR


NR
NR


NR


NR
308.7* 


290.0* 


291.7*

Wood
2002 [10]
101 (109)Living in the communityBedbound, severe medical instability1, 2, 3

12 months

Fall Y/N
>1 fall
69 (68%) ≥ 1 fall
18 (18%) = 1 fall
51 (50%) > 1 fall
585
18
567*
8.5* 
1.0* 
11.1*
8.5* 
1.0* 
11.1*
5.8* 
0.2* 
5.6*

aParticipant number—number reported (number recruited).
bFall definition [37]—1 = unintentional/unexpected change in position, 2 = person comes to rest on lower level, 3 = not as a result of a major intrinsic event or overwhelming hazard.
cNumber (%) of fallers—reported for fallers (single + recurrent), single fallers, and recurrent fallers.
dNumber of falls—recurrent falls are shown in bold.
eFalls/faller—number of falls divided by the number of fallers, calculated for each reported fall category.
fFalls/faller/yr—number of falls divided by the number of fallers, adjusted to give an approximate yearly rate.
gFalls/participant/yr—number of falls divided by the number of participants in the study, calculated for each reported fall category, and adjusted to give an approximate yearly rate.
Bold font indicates data pertaining to recurrent falls; study is an intervention trial; *data calculated from published paper; definition of falls included all of the following: “near falls” (i.e., fall initiated but arrested by support from a wall, railing, other person, etc.), “whole body falls,” falls to the hand or knee, and falls that were unable to be categorized based on the information reported by the participant. Only data for “whole body falls” and falls to the hand or knee are reported in this table.
PD: Parkinson’s disease; LOC: loss of consciousness; NR: not reported or insufficient detail to calculate; Y: yes; N: no; FOG: freezing of gait; Sx: surgery.