Physiology Journal The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Cardiovascular and Thermal Response to Dry-Sauna Exposure in Healthy Subjects Wed, 08 Oct 2014 11:45:47 +0000 Dry-sauna is a strong thermal stimulus and is commonly used all over the world. The aim of this experiment was to comprehensively analyse cardiovascular and autonomic changes that result from an increase in core body temperature during sauna bath. The study included 9 healthy men with mean age 26.7 ± 3.0 years and comparable anthropomorphical characteristics. Each subject was exposed to one 15-minute session of dry-sauna treatment at 100°C and 30–40% humidity. The autonomic and baseline cardiovascular (i.e., hemodynamic and contractility) parameters were measured noninvasively with Task Force Monitor. Cardiovascular autonomic functions were assessed using baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) and spectral analysis of heart rate (HRV) and blood pressure (BPV) variability. Measurements were performed four times, at the following stages “before sauna,” “after sauna,” “sauna + 3 h,” and “sauna + 6 h.” The first recording constituted a baseline for the subsequent three measurements. The changes in core body temperature were determined with the Vital Sense telemetric measurement system. Results show that exposure to the extreme external environmental conditions of dry-sauna does not compromise homeostasis in healthy persons. The hemodynamic changes induced by heating are efficiently compensated by the cardiovascular system and do not exert negative effects upon its short-term regulatory potential. Pawel Zalewski, Monika Zawadka-Kunikowska, Joanna Słomko, Justyna Szrajda, Jacek J. Klawe, Malogorzata Tafil-Klawe, and Julia Newton Copyright © 2014 Pawel Zalewski et al. All rights reserved. Dietary Consumption of Virgin Coconut Oil Ameliorates Lipid Profiles in Diabetic Rats Mon, 29 Sep 2014 09:40:57 +0000 Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a saturated fat with promising antidiabetic properties but its ameliorative effect on lipid profiles in diabetics is rarely reported. Therefore, in this study, a total of fifteen (15) male rats weighing 200–250 g were divided into 3 experimental groups (). Group I (control) and Group II (diabetic control group) were fed a normal rat chow while Group III (diabetic test group) was fed a 10% VCO diet for 3 weeks. Group II and Group III were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg of alloxan. After 72 hours of injection, blood glucose was tested to confirm diabetes mellitus. After 3 weeks, the animals were sacrificed to collect blood samples for lipid profile analysis. The results showed a significant increase in concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein and decrease in concentration of high density lipoprotein in Group II when compared to Group I. Also, the concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein except high density lipoprotein significantly reduced in Group III when compared to Group II (, 0.001). VCO consumption can be claimed to ameliorate lipid levels in diabetes mellitus. A. M. Akinnuga, S. O. Jeje, O. Bamidele, and V. E. Sunday Copyright © 2014 A. M. Akinnuga et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Differing Dosages of Pomegranate Juice Supplementation after Eccentric Exercise Mon, 29 Sep 2014 09:34:33 +0000 Dietary supplementation with pomegranate juice improves isometric strength recovery after unaccustomed eccentric exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a dose response effect of pomegranate juice supplementation after eccentric exercise isometric strength recovery. Forty-five nonresistance trained, recreationally active men were assigned once-daily pomegranate juice, twice-daily pomegranate juice, or placebo supplementation. On day four of supplementation, 20 min of downhill running and 40 maximal eccentric elbow flexion repetitions were performed. Isometric knee extensor and elbow flexor strength, muscular soreness, and serum myoglobin concentrations were measured prior to exercise and 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after exercise. Throughout the postexercise time period, while isometric knee extensor and elbow flexor strength were similar between once-daily and twice-daily pomegranate juice supplementation groups, isometric strength was significantly higher in pomegranate juice groups than placebo. Knee extensor soreness, elbow flexor soreness, and myoglobin increased in response to exercise but were similar between groups. It is apparent that pomegranate juice supplementation improves strength recovery in leg and arm muscles following eccentric exercise; however, no dose response effect was present. We conclude that once-daily pomegranate juice supplementation is not different from twice-daily supplementation in regards to strength recovery after eccentric exercise. Daniel R. Machin, Kevin M. Christmas, Ting-Heng Chou, Sarah C. Hill, Douglas W. Van Pelt, Justin R. Trombold, and Edward F. Coyle Copyright © 2014 Daniel R. Machin et al. All rights reserved. Relationship between Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Visual Acuity in Residents of Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria Tue, 19 Aug 2014 07:34:56 +0000 Aim. To study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) on visual acuity among apparently healthy residents of Ekpoma, Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study among 225 subjects (ages of 18–35 years) from whom BP, body weight, and height were collected. Visual acuity was measured using the Snellen chart following standard procedures of number of letters seen at 6-metre distance. The data were then analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results. The sampled population consists of 112 male and 113 female (mean age years). Majority (180) of the respondents had normal visual acuity. However, compared with the respondents with normal BMI (; ), visual acuity of underweight (; ) and obese (; ) were more deviated. Similarly, compared with respondent with normal BP (120–125/80–85 mmHg; ; ), hypotensive (; ), and hypertensive (; ) respondents had deviated visual acuity. Conclusion. Abnormal body weight (underweight and obese) and BP (hypotension and hypertension) have potential negative impacts on visual acuity. Based on the observed relationship between weights, BP, and visual acuity, eye examinations can be included as regular screening exercise for abnormal BMI and BP conditions. I. O. Ernest-Nwoke, M. O. Ozor, U. Akpamu, and M. O. Oyakhire Copyright © 2014 I. O. Ernest-Nwoke et al. All rights reserved. Physiological Responses to Nutrient Accumulation in Trees Seedlings Irrigated with Municipal Effluent in Indian Desert Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Leaf water potential (), net photosynthesis rate (), transpiration rate (), stomatal conductance (), and water use efficiency (WUE) are greatly influenced by the nutrient composition of water which is used for irrigating trees. The above-mentioned physiological variables and foliage mineral concentrations were observed for Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Acacia nilotica, and Dalbergia sissoo plants irrigated with municipal effluent (ME) at 1/2 PET (potential evapotranspiration; T1), 1 PET (T2), and 2 PET (T3) rates and the control plants irrigated with canal water at 1PET (T4). Increased mineral concentrations in order T1 < T2 < T3 enhanced , , , and . Relatively greater increase in than reduced WUE. Available nutrient in ME enhanced physiological function in T2, whereas reduced quantity of water lowered it in T1 than in T4 plants. Differential minerals uptake increased concentrations of N and P in D. sissoo, Mn in E. camaldulensis, and the rest in A. nilotica. was more sensitive to environment than . Enhanced mineral concentration through ME was beneficial but its differential uptake and accumulation influenced physiological functions and WUE. E. camaldulensis is better for high and continuous loading of effluent and A. nilotica is best for high nutrient uptake. D. sissoo is efficient water user. G. Singh, Madhulika Bhati, T. R. Rathod, and U. K. Tomar Copyright © 2014 G. Singh et al. All rights reserved. Virgin Coconut Oil: Remedial Effects on Renal Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats Wed, 09 Jul 2014 11:26:58 +0000 Renal dysfunction is now a prevalent complication of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the remedial effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on renal dysfunction in diabetic rats. Fifteen albino Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups that comprise normal control group (Group I) and diabetic control group (Group II) fed with normal rat chows and a diabetic test group (Group III) fed with 10% VCO diet. Group II and Group III were made diabetic by single intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg of freshly prepared alloxan monohydrate. After 72 hours of alloxan injection, fasting blood glucose was tested to confirm diabetes mellitus. After 3 weeks, the animals were anaesthetized and sacrificed to collect blood samples for renal function analysis. The creatinine, urea, and blood urea nitrogen values of Group II were significantly different from those of Group I and Group III at . Also, there was significant difference () in total protein value between Group II (4.42  ±  0.47 mg/dL) and Group I (5.78  ±  0.12 mg/dL) as well as Group III (5.86  ±  0.19 mg/dL), but there was no significant difference between that of Group I and Group III (5.78  ±  0.12 mg/dL and 5.86  ±  0.19 mg/dL, resp.). Thus, VCO is effective in preventing renal damage in diabetic patients. A. M. Akinnuga, S. O. Jeje, O. Bamidele, E. E. Amaku, F. O. Otogo, and V. E. Sunday Copyright © 2014 A. M. Akinnuga et al. All rights reserved. Muscular Damage and Kidney Function in Rugby Players after Daily Whole Body Cryostimulation Thu, 12 Jun 2014 11:45:24 +0000 Muscular damage, consequent to strenuous activities, could exceed the recovery potential of muscles and determine renal failure. Whole body cryostimulation is a cold-based therapy used to improve recovery or overcome fatigue symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of repeated sessions of cryostimulation on muscle damage, renal function, and their relationship. Serum samples, from 27 elite rugby players, under training, before and after 2 sessions/day of cryotherapy over 7 days, were tested for markers of muscular (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase) and renal (creatinine, cystatin C) functions. eGFR was calculated with two formulas based on either serum creatinine concentration (MDRD) or serum creatinine and cystatin C concentrations (creatinine/cystatin C CKD EPI). Pre- and posttreatment differences were determined by Wilcoxon’s test; correlations were evaluated with Spearman’s test. Cryostimulation helped muscular recovery (increased lactate dehydrogenase activity and the stabile creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities). Creatinine was unaffected while cystatin C was increased . Creatinine-based eGFR was not affected by cryostimulation, while creatinine/cystatin C-based eGFR showed a slight decrease . eGFR and muscular biomarkers were not correlated, suggesting a real recovery effect of cryotherapy. Cystatin C seemed more sensible than creatinine in evaluating the kidney function. Giovanni Lombardi, Alessandra Colombini, Simone Porcelli, Clara Mauri, Viviana Zani, Felice Bonomi, Gianluca Melegati, and Giuseppe Banfi Copyright © 2014 Giovanni Lombardi et al. All rights reserved. A Population-Based Study on Gestational Weight Gain according to Body Mass Index in the Southeast of Brazil Sun, 25 May 2014 08:36:07 +0000 Gestational weight gain (GWG) may interfere in perinatal outcomes and also cause future problems throughout woman’s life. The aim of this population-based study is to evaluate the GWG in Campinas city, southeast of Brazil. A total of 1052 women, who delivered in the three major maternity hospitals in Campinas, were interviewed during postpartum period. The general average of GWG was . Of total women, 13.6% were obese and 24.6% were overweight and, in these groups, 55.9% and 53.7%, respectively, exceeded GWG according to the Institute of Medicine recommendations. 6.2% of total women had low body mass index (BMI) and 35.5% in this group had insufficient GWG. Overweight and obese women had a higher risk of excessive GWG and delivery by c-section. The c-section rate was 58.9% and increased according to GWG. Prematurity was more prevalent first in obese and then in low BMI women. Considering the high BMI in women in reproductive age, it is necessary to take effective guidelines about lifestyle and nutritional orientation in order to help women reach adequate GWG. All of them could improve prenatal outcomes and women’s heath as a whole. Ana Carolina Godoy, Simony Lira Nascimento, Karina Tamy Kasawara, Nathalia Hatsue Oushiro, and Fernanda Garanhani Surita Copyright © 2014 Ana Carolina Godoy et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Mechanism for Cross-Adaptation between Heat and Altitude Acclimation: The Role of Heat Shock Protein 90 Mon, 12 May 2014 10:10:49 +0000 Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a member of a family of molecular chaperone proteins which can be upregulated by various stressors including heat stress leading to increases in HSP90 protein expression. Its primary functions include (1) renaturing and denaturing of damaged proteins caused by heat stress and (2) interacting with client proteins to induce cell signaling for gene expression. The latter function is of interest because, in cancer cells, HSP90 has been reported to interact with the transcription hypoxic-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α). In a normoxic environment, HIF1α is degraded and therefore has limited physiological function. In contrast, in a hypoxic environment, stabilized HIF1α acts to promote erythropoiesis and angiogenesis. Since HSP90 interacts with HIF1α, and HSP90 can be upregulated from heat acclimation in humans, we present a proposal that heat acclimation can mimic molecular adaptations to those of altitude exposure. Specifically, we propose that heat acclimation increases HSP90 which then stabilizes HIF1α in a normoxic environment. This has many implications since HIF1α regulates red blood cell and vasculature formation. In this paper we will discuss (1) the functional roles of HSP90 and HIF1α, (2) the interaction between HSP90 and other client proteins including HIF1α, and (3) results from in vitro studies that may suggest how the relationship between HSP90 and HIF1α might be applied to individuals preparing to make altitude sojourns. Roy M. Salgado, Ailish C. White, Suzanne M. Schneider, and Christine M. Mermier Copyright © 2014 Roy M. Salgado et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Pathophysiological Study of Normal and Growth Retarded Human Placental Tissue Sun, 11 May 2014 12:00:27 +0000 This study compares the pathophysiology of normal and growth retarded human placental tissues. Female patients were recruited from the Antenatal Clinic of Dolu Specialist Hospital, Mafoluku, Oshodi, Lagos, between 2008 and 2012. A total of 48 normal term placentas and 15 placentas of known IUGR cases were used for this study. IUGR cases were confirmed on the basis of ultrasound follow-up and diagnosis. Normal term placentas were collected at the point of delivery by a consultant gynaecologist, the cords were clamped, and membranes were then carefully trimmed after which each placenta was weighed. About 1 cm thickness of both normal and growth retarded placenta tissues was cut, processed for hematoxylin and eosin stain, while tissues for enzyme (ALP) assay were homogenized in cold 0.5 M sucrose solution. Comparative analysis of the data was done using ANOVA; was taken as significant. The photomicrographs were observed/studied under light microscope, using the X150 and X600 magnifications. It was revealed therein that placental tissues are homogenous (regionally), compromised of maternal spiral arterioles and deregulated villous vasculogenesis, and that there is a significant difference in the level of alkaline phosphatase enzyme. We therefore concluded that there is a distinct difference between the normal and growth retarded human placenta tissue. Adam Moyosore Afodun, Khadijat Kofoworola Quadri, Mustapha Akajewole Masud, Oluseyi Abimbola Ogunsola, Abdurrasheed Ola Muhammad, Rafiu Abioye Ajiboye, and Eziekel Ademola Caxton-Martins Copyright © 2014 Adam Moyosore Afodun et al. All rights reserved. Daily Controlled Consumption of an Electrokinetically Modified Water Alters the Fatigue Response as a Result of Strenuous Resistance Exercise Wed, 07 May 2014 12:03:01 +0000 Our objective was to assess the effects of consuming electrokinetically modified water (EMW) on fatigue attenuation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) following resistance exercise. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-arm trial was used in this investigation. Forty participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a placebo-control group. Participants consumed the EMW or placebo water daily for eighteen days prior to completing a fatigue protocol for the elbow flexors. The fatigue protocol consisted of a single bout of resistance exercise for the biceps brachii. Participants were tested for isometric strength before exercise and immediately following exercise. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction was used as the criterion measure for strength. To calculate the fatigue index, the postexercise maximal voluntary isometric contraction value was divided by the preexercise maximal voluntary isometric contraction value multiplied by 100. Also, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed using the Borg scale. Fatigue indices and RPE were significantly lower for the experimental group compared to the control group (). Consuming EMW for eighteen days prior to high intensity resistance exercise can significantly enhance muscle contractile function by reducing muscle fatigue and RPE. Paul A. Borsa and Kelly A. Larkin-Kaiser Copyright © 2014 Paul A. Borsa and Kelly A. Larkin-Kaiser. All rights reserved. Quantitative Analysis of the Relationship between Blood Vessel Wall Constituents and Viscoelastic Properties: Dynamic Biomechanical and Structural In Vitro Studies in Aorta and Carotid Arteries Wed, 09 Apr 2014 12:02:41 +0000 The purposes of this work were to perform in sheep a quantification of the elastic, viscous, and inertial moduli obtained in carotid and aortic artery segments during in vitro dynamic studies that mimic the normal circulatory function; a quantitative determination of collagen, elastin, and vascular smooth muscle of the carotid and aortic segments analyzed in vitro; the correlation between the amounts of each arterial wall constituent and the viscoelastic properties. To this end, nine healthy sheep were included. One artery was selected from each animal to evaluate its biomechanical properties: (a) in three sheep the ascending aorta, (b) in three the thoracic descending aorta, and (c) in the remaining three the proximal segments of the carotid artery. Each selected artery was instrumented with pressure and diameter sensors. After excision, a small ring-shaped sample was set apart from each segment for histological analysis. In conclusion, (a) the arterial compliance showed a positive association with the absolute and relative amount of the parietal elastin, and (b) arterial viscosity was positively associated with the relative amount of smooth muscle, and this association was increased when the correlation was calculated considering the amount of collagen as well as the amount of smooth muscle. Daniel Bia, Yanina Zócalo, Edmundo I. Cabrera-Fischer, Sandra Wray, and Ricardo L. Armentano Copyright © 2014 Daniel Bia et al. All rights reserved. Mitigating the Effects of Salinity by Foliar Application of Salicylic Acid in Fenugreek Tue, 01 Apr 2014 09:05:58 +0000 Present research work was conducted to alleviate the salinity-induced harmful effect on biomass production and physiochemical attributes of fenugreek by foliar application of salicylic acid. Two varieties (Deli Kabul and Kasuri) were grown in salt treated (100 mM NaCl) and untreated (0 mM NaCl) growth medium. Two levels of salicylic acid (0 mg L−1 and 100 mg L−1) were applied through foliar method. Salinity stress significantly reduced the growth biomass in both varieties. Higher shoot fresh weight was recorded in Deli Kabul, while lower in Kasuri. Such reduction in growth biomass was mitigated by the foliar application of SA in both plants. Salinity caused a marked reduction in gas exchange attributes including net CO2 assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and substomatal CO2 concentration. Exogenous applied salicylic acid also overcomes the reduction in gas exchange attributes of the plants. The varieties “Deli Kabul” and “Kasuri” showed higher and lower net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively. These results indicate that growth medium salinity induced reduction in biomass production, gas exchange attributes, and also chlorophyll contents whereas the application of SA through foliar method can be used to protect plant growth and improve these attributes under salt stress. Sumaira Babar, Ejaz Hussain Siddiqi, Iqbal Hussain, Khizar Hayat Bhatti, and Rizwan Rasheed Copyright © 2014 Sumaira Babar et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Effects of Glucose and Fructose on Exercise Metabolism, Perceived Exertion, and Recovery in Untrained Females Wed, 19 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 This double-blinded, crossover randomized controlled trial study was designed to establish if combined ingestion of glucose and fructose (GLU + FRU) at the moderate rate 0.5 g·min−1 would result in higher rates of carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation compared with glucose (GLU) alone. Eight untrained females (VO2max: 25.8 ± 3.2 mL·kg−1·min−1) cycled on two different occasions for 60 min at 50% of maximal power output (60% ± 1 % VO2max) and consumed 12% CHO solution of either providing 0.33 g·min−1 glucose + 0.17 g·min−1 fructose (GLU + FRUC) or 0.5 g·min−1 of glucose (GLU) alone. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed during exercise and subjective exercise experience assessed two days after each trial. CHO oxidation was not significantly different () between GLU + FRU and GLU (0.8 ± 0.06 g·min−1 and 0.78 ± 0.05 g·min−1, resp.). CHO oxidation rates during the final 30 min of the recovery period were not significantly different between GLU + FRU and GLU (0.17 ± 0.04 g·min−1 and 0.14 ± 0.05 g·min−1, resp.). Experience of distress was significantly higher () for GLU compared to GLU + FRU. The results reveal that consuming modest amounts of glucose plus fructose does not boost CHO oxidation above that of glucose alone during submaximal exercise. Babatunde O. Folarin, Ian A. Macdonald, Latif Khaled, Patterson Jill, Capocci Hannah, Thirkell Phil, and Macdermid C. Joy Copyright © 2014 Babatunde O. Folarin et al. All rights reserved. Sex Differences in Peripheral Augmentation Index and Arterial Reservoir Pressure during Upper Limb Postural Shifts Sun, 05 Jan 2014 13:54:27 +0000 We examined the peripheral hemodynamic response to passive arm postural changes in young men and women. Radial artery pulse waveforms were captured using applanation tonometry in 20 men (age 27 ± 2 yrs, BMI 25 ± 1 kg/m2) and 20 women (age 27 ± 2 yrs, BMI 23±1 kg/m2). Arm position was maintained at either heart level or supported 14 cm above/below heart level in a randomized fashion. Systolic augmentation index (sAIx) and diastolic augmentation index (dAIx) were used as estimates of pressure from wave reflections arriving in systole and diastole, respectively. A novel reservoir-wave separation technique was used to obtain arterial reservoir pressure (pressure generated by arterial capacitance). Women showed a significant reduction in radial diastolic pressure-time integral (DPTI) () and reservoir pressure (), with no change in peripheral sAIx () or dAIx () when moving the arm from below to above heart level. Conversely, men showed an attenuated change in radial DPTI () concomitant with significant increases in reservoir pressure (), sAIx (), and dAIx (). Gravity-mediated changes in regional hemodynamics produced by passive arm postural shifts are sex specific. Men demonstrate less change in regional diastolic pressure concomitant with increased augmentation index and arterial reservoir pressure. Kevin S. Heffernan, Ari G. Kasprowicz, Brendan J. Tarzia, Justin E. Davies, and Darren P. Casey Copyright © 2014 Kevin S. Heffernan et al. All rights reserved. Changes in Haematological Indices in Normal Pregnancy Mon, 30 Dec 2013 14:10:13 +0000 Variation in some haematological indices during normal pregnancy was investigated. The test group comprised 200 pregnant women who presented themselves at the Capitol Hill Clinic Warri, Delta State, Nigeria, for antenatal care while the control group comprised 80 nonpregnant women randomly selected from the student population in Delta State University, Abraka. Data generated from the pretest questionnaire indicated that 55.8% of the research participants experienced an increase in appetite. The analysis of haematological indices was done using automated hematological analyzer. The result from the study showed that there was a significant decrease () in the PCV of the test group ()% when compared to the control ()%. Similarly, the result of the blood haemoglobin showed a significant difference () between the test () g/dL and the control group () g/dL while granulocytes and platelets also showed significant decrease () with lymphocytes increasing significantly; the total white blood cell count (WBC) showed no significant difference; there was an increased level compared to the control. The study concluded that pregnancy in women has the tendency to alter haematological indices. Patrick Chukwuyenum Ichipi-Ifukor, Juliet Jacobs, Rita Ngozi Ichipi-Ifukor, and Oberhiri Lawrence Ewrhe Copyright © 2013 Patrick Chukwuyenum Ichipi-Ifukor et al. All rights reserved. Combined Effects of Stretching and Resistance Training on Ankle Joint Flexibility Wed, 18 Dec 2013 16:16:46 +0000 The purpose of the present study was to clarify the combined effects of stretching and resistance training on the active and passive dorsiflexion range of motion of ankle joint. Sixteen young adult men were randomly assigned to a training () or a control () group. The training group trained one leg for the combined program of static calf stretching and dorsiflexors resistance training program (STR+TR) and the other leg for static stretching program only (STR). The training group executed stretching of both legs every day and resistance training every other day for six weeks. After the training program, in STR+TR side, both active and passive dorsiflexion range of motions significantly () increased and also isometric maximal voluntary dorsiflexion torque increased, while in STR side, only passive dorsiflexion range of motion increased. In passive dorsiflexion range of motion, increased dorsiflexion ROM was accompanied by increased tendon elongation not muscle elongation. In conclusion, the combined program of stretching for calf muscles and resistance training for dorsiflexors increases active as well as passive dorsiflexion range of motion, while static calf stretching program is effective only for the increase in passive dorsiflexion range of motion. E. Kato, T. Kurihara, H. Kanehisa, T. Fukunaga, and Y. Kawakami Copyright © 2013 E. Kato et al. All rights reserved. Reliability of Calf Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy and Magnetic-Resonance-Imaging-Acquired Skeletal Muscle Hydration Measures in Healthy People Mon, 02 Sep 2013 11:48:05 +0000 Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability, relative variability, and agreement between calf bioelectrical impedance-spectroscopy (cBIS) acquired extracellular fluid (ECF), intracellular fluid (ICF), total water and the ratio of ECF : ICF, magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) acquired transverse relaxation times (), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of calf muscles of the same segment in healthy individuals. Methods. Muscle hydration measures were collected in 32 healthy individuals on two occasions and analyzed by a single rater. On both occasions, MRI measures were collected from tibialis anterior (TA), medial (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and soleus muscles following the cBIS data acquired using XiTRON Hydra 4200 BIS device. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1), coefficient of variation (CV), and agreement between MRI and cBIS data were also calculated. Results. ICC2,1 values for cBIS, , and ADC ranged from 0.56 to 0.92, 0.96 to 0.99, and 0.05 to 0.56, respectively. Relative variability between measures (CV) ranged from 14.6 to 25.6% for the cBIS data and 4.2 to 10.0% for the MRI-acquired data. The ratio of ECF : ICF could significantly predict of TA and soleus muscles. Conclusion. MRI-acquired measures of had the highest test-retest reliability of muscle hydration with the least error and variation on repeated testing. Hence, of a muscle is the most reliable and stable outcome measure for evaluating individual muscle hydration. Anuradha Sawant, Andrew A. House, Bert M. Chesworth, Joseph Gati, Robert Lindsay, Denise M. Connelly, Robert Bartha, and Tom J. Overend Copyright © 2013 Anuradha Sawant et al. All rights reserved. Altered Responses to Cold Environment in Urocortin 1 and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Deficient Mice Mon, 27 May 2013 08:08:07 +0000 We examined core body temperature (CBT) of urocortin 1 (UCN1) and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) knockout (KO) mice exposed to 4°C for 2 h. UCN1KO mice showed higher average CBT during cold exposure as compared to WT. The CBT of male and female WT mice dropped significantly to and  C at 4°C, respectively. In contrast, the CBT of male and female UCN1KO mice dropped only slightly after 2 h at 4°C to and  C, respectively. WT female and male UCN1KO mice showed significant acclimatization to cold; however, female UCN1KO mice did not show such a significant acclimatization. CRFKO mice showed a dramatic decline in CBT from at 22°C to at 4°C for 2 h. The CRF/UCN1 double KO (dKO) mice dropped their CBT to after 2 h exposure to 4°C. Dexamethasone treatment prevented the decline in CBT of the CRFKO and the dKO mice. Taken together, the data suggest a novel role for UCN1 in thermoregulation. The role of CRF is likely secondary to adrenal glucocorticoids, which have an important regulatory role on carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. Bayan Chaker, Tareq A. Samra, Nabanita S. Datta, and Abdul B. Abou-Samra Copyright © 2013 Bayan Chaker et al. All rights reserved. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the Renal Betaine/GABA Transporter Prevents Trafficking to the Plasma Membrane Tue, 16 Apr 2013 18:28:07 +0000 One response to hypertonic stress in the renal medulla and MDCK cells is the upregulation of betaine transporter (BGT1) synthesis, followed by trafficking to the plasma membrane (PM) and an increase in betaine transport. Upregulation of BGT1 was enhanced by inhibitors of phosphatases PP1 and PP2A and was attenuated by inhibitors of protein kinase C, suggesting an important role for phosphorylation reactions. This was tested using mutants of BGT1 tagged with EGFP. The PM trafficking motifs of BGT1 reside near the C terminus, and truncation at lysine560 resulted in a protein that remained intracellular during hypertonic stress. This K560 mutant colocalized with endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Substitution of alanine at Thr40, a putative phosphorylation site, also prevented trafficking to the PM during hypertonic stress. Live-cell imaging showed that T40A was not retained in the ER and colocalized with markers for Golgi and endosomes. In contrast, substitution of aspartate or glutamate at Thr40, to mimic phosphorylation, restored normal trafficking to the PM. HEK293 cells transfected with K560 or T40A mutants had 10% of the GABA transport activity of native BGT1, but normal transport activity was restored in cells expressing T40E. Normal BGT1 trafficking likely requires phosphorylation at Thr40 in addition to C-terminal motifs. Christopher R. Day, Sashana S. Gordon, Cherissa L. Vaughn, and Stephen A. Kempson Copyright © 2013 Christopher R. Day et al. All rights reserved. The Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated Potassium Channel, Subtype SK3, in the Human Myometrium Is Downregulated in Early Stages of Pregnancy Sun, 07 Apr 2013 14:39:18 +0000 The human myometrium is mainly relaxed during pregnancy, but, up to term, contractions become more coordinated and forceful in order to initiate delivery. Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK channels) in human myometrium have been shown to be downregulated in late pregnancy. The aim was to investigate the presence of SK2 and SK3 in the human myometrium from nonpregnant women, pregnant women at term, and pregnancies delivered preterm and, in addition, to characterize the time of downregulation of these channels. Using qRT-PCR, we observed significantly lower levels of mRNA for SK2 than for SK3 in the nonpregnant tissue. The mRNA levels of SK3 were significantly reduced in tissue from pregnancies at term and pregnancies resulting in preterm deliveries, whereas no downregulation for SK2 was observed. Western blotting confirmed the qRT-PCR results. Using immunohistochemical staining, both SK2 and SK3 were detected in endometrial glandular epithelium. We conclude that SK3 mRNA is downregulated early in pregnancy—at least among those that result in preterm deliveries. Furthermore, we find that SK channels are expressed not only in the uterine smooth muscle but also in the endometrial epithelium. M. Rahbek, S. T. Rosenbaum, M. J. Dahl, D. A. Klaerke, L. Ødum, S. S. Poulsen, T. Larsen, and P. Bouchelouche Copyright © 2013 M. Rahbek et al. All rights reserved. Reliability of the Electromechanical Delay Components Assessment during the Relaxation Phase Wed, 06 Mar 2013 15:12:36 +0000 The study aimed to assess by an electromyographic (EMG), mechanomyographic (MMG), and force-combined approach the electrochemical and mechanical components of the overall electromechanical delay during relaxation (R-EMD). Reliability of the measurements was also assessed. To this purpose, supramaximal tetanic stimulations (50 Hz) were delivered to the gastrocnemius medialis muscle of 17 participants. During stimulations, the EMG, MMG, and force signals were detected, and the time lag between EMG cessation and the beginning of force decay ( EMG-F, as temporal indicators of the electrochemical events) and from the initial force decrease to the largest negative peak of MMG signal during relaxation ( F-MMG, as temporal indicators of the mechanical events) was calculated, together with overall R-EMD duration (from EMG cessation to the largest MMG negative peak during relaxation). Peak force (pF), half relaxation time (HRT), and MMG peak-to-peak during the relaxation phase (R-MMG p-p) were also calculated. Test-retest reliability was assessed by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). With a total R-EMD duration of 96.9 ± 1.9 ms, EMG-F contributed for about 24% (23.4 ± 2.7 ms) while F-MMG for about 76% (73.5 ± 3.2 ms). Reliability of the measurements was high for all variables. Our findings show that the main contributor to R-EMD is represented by the mechanical components (series elastic components and muscle fibres behaviour), with a high reliability level for this type of approach. Emiliano Cè, Susanna Rampichini, Eloisa Limonta, and Fabio Esposito Copyright © 2013 Emiliano Cè et al. All rights reserved. Noninvasive Evaluation of Nerve Conduction in Small Diameter Fibers in the Rat Tue, 26 Feb 2013 15:28:04 +0000 A novel noninvasive technique was applied to measure velocity within slow conducting axons in the distal extreme of the sciatic nerve (i.e., digital nerve) in a rat model. The technique is based on the extraction of rectified multiple unit activity (MUA) from in vivo whole nerve compound responses. This method reliably identifies compound action potentials in thinly myelinated fibers conducting at a range of 9–18 m/s ( axons), as well as in a subgroup of unmyelinated C fibers conducting at approximately 1-2 m/s. The sensitivity of the method to C-fiber conduction was confirmed by the progressive decrement of the responses in the 1-2 m/s range over a 20-day period following the topical application of capsaicin (ANOVA ). Increasing the frequency of applied repetitive stimulation over a range of 0.75 Hz to 6.0 Hz produced slowing of conduction and a significant decrease in the magnitude of the compound C-fiber response (ANOVA ). This technique offers a unique opportunity for the noninvasive, repeatable, and quantitative assessment of velocity in the subsets of and C fibers in parallel with the evaluation of fast nerve conduction. Elena G. Zotova and Joseph C. Arezzo Copyright © 2013 Elena G. Zotova and Joseph C. Arezzo. All rights reserved. Use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Asses Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in Skeletal Muscle Thu, 21 Feb 2013 14:20:42 +0000 Remote ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a procedure during which brief periods of ischemia protect distant organ from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Appling IPC on an upper arm, this phenomenon has been demonstrated in several studies. Skeletal muscle tissue oxygenation at rest (StO2) and StO2 deoxygenation rate during vascular occlusion can be measured using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We aimed to investigate the effects of remote upper arm IPC on StO2 and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in healthy male volunteers. In a randomized controlled crossover trial, resting StO2, StO2 deoxygenation rate, and FMD were measured on testing arm at baseline and after 60 minutes. After basal measurements IPC protocol on a contralateral arm was performed. StO2 deoxygenation rate was significantly lower after remote, the IPC cycles in comparison to deoxygenation rate at baseline ( versus %, ). Comparison of deoxygenation rates showed a significant difference between the IPC and the control protocol (, ). No differences were observed in FMD before and after remote IPC and in the control protocol. In healthy young adults, remote IPC reduces StO2 deoxygenation rate but has no significant impact on FMD. NIRS technique offers a novel approach to asses skeletal muscle adaptation in response to remote ischemic stimuli. Jana Ambrozic, Mitja Lainscak, and Matej Podbregar Copyright © 2013 Jana Ambrozic et al. All rights reserved. Combined Lung Transfer of NO and CO in Patients Receiving Methotrexate or Bleomycin Therapy Compared to Normal Subjects Tue, 29 Jan 2013 14:25:10 +0000 The first aim of the study is to determine whether combined lung diffusing capacities of nitric oxide (TLNO) and of carbon monoxide (TLCO) are accurate in the followup of patients receiving either methotrexate (MTX) or bleomycin (BLM). The second objective is to determine whether TLCO, TLNO, KCO, and TLCO/VI% (inspiratory volume expressed as percentage of predicted value) correlate better with the diffusing capacity of the membrane (Dm) and/or capillary lung volume (Vc). TLNO and TLCO were measured in three groups: 22 “normal” subjects (N group), 17 patients receiving MTX, and 12 patients treated with BLM. TLCO, TLNO, Dm, and Vc were much lower in the MTX and BLM groups compared to those of the N one. The ratio TLNO/TLCO was higher in the BLM group compared to that of the N group and compared to that of the MTX group. KCO correlated neither with Dc nor with Vc, whereas TLCO/VI% correlated significantly with both Dm and Vc. Combined measurement of TLCO and TLNO seems to be useful in the followup of patients receiving agents inducing lung toxicity and gives a good idea of the alveolar membrane and the capillary volume. Chantal Viart-Ferber, Sébastien Couraud, Frédéric Gormand, and Yves Pacheco Copyright © 2013 Chantal Viart-Ferber et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Aerobic Training on Cognitive Function and Arterial Stiffness in Sedentary Young Adults: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial Mon, 14 Jan 2013 08:19:42 +0000 This study measured cognitive and vascular responses to aerobic training in sedentary young adults. Ten adults (6 women, 4 men; 18–29 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental or no-treatment control group. The experimental group engaged in a 6-week intervention, performed on exercise cycle and treadmill, 3x/week, 50 min/session; intensity was increased over time. Outcome measures included arterial stiffness (augmentation index, AIx, and pulse pressure), cardiorespiratory fitness (), and cognitive function (attention, processing speed, working memory, episodic memory, and executive function). Participants randomized to aerobic training improved processing speed versus control (, ES = 0.55). However, no group × time effects were noted in other domains of cognitive function. AIx was reduced by approximately 16% from before to after intervention in the experimental group; however, the improvement was not statistically significant versus control (, ES = 0.22). Pulse pressure did not change between groups over time (, ES = 0.0). increased by approximately 10% in the experimental group; however, the change was not significant between groups over time (, ES = 0.27). Vascular and cognitive adaptations to aerobic training may move in parallel. Robust trials simultaneously investigating a broad spectrum of aerobic training interventions and vascular and cognitive outcomes are warranted. Samuel Asamoah, Jason Siegler, Dennis Chang, Andrew Scholey, Alan Yeung, and Birinder S. Cheema Copyright © 2013 Samuel Asamoah et al. All rights reserved.