- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 828106, 7 pages
Cigarette-Smoking Intensity and Interferon-Gamma Release Assay Conversion among Persons Who Inject Drugs: A Cohort Study
1San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182-4162, USA
2Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC-0507, San Diego, CA 92093-0507, USA
3Patronato Pro-COMUSIDA, Ninos Heroes No. 697, Zona Centro, Tijuana, BC, Mexico
4Parque Industrial Internacional, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Calzada Universidad 14418, Tijuana, BC, Mexico
Received 18 September 2012; Accepted 15 November 2012
Academic Editor: Jonathan Golub
Copyright © 2012 Sanghyuk S. Shin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- WHO & The Union, Monograph on TB and Tobacco Control: Joining Efforts to Control Two Related Global Epidemics, World Health Organization & International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Geneva, Switzerland, 2007.
- H. H. Lin, M. Ezzati, and M. Murray, “Tobacco smoke, indoor air pollution and tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 4, article e20, 2007.
- K. Slama, C. Y. Chiang, D. A. Enarson et al., “Tobacco and tuberculosis: a qualitative systematic review and meta-analysis,” International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1049–1061, 2007.
- M. N. Bates, A. Khalakdina, M. Pai, L. Chang, F. Lessa, and K. R. Smith, “Risk of tuberculosis from exposure to tobacco smoke: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 167, no. 4, pp. 335–342, 2007.
- R. N. Van Zyl Smit, M. Pai, W. W. Yew et al., “Global lung health: the colliding epidemics of tuberculosis, tobacco smoking, HIV and COPD,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 27–33, 2010.
- N. K. Schneider and T. E. Novotny, “Addressing smoking cessation in tuberculosis control,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 820–821, 2007.
- S. H. Jee, J. E. Golub, J. Jo, I. S. Park, H. Ohrr, and J. M. Samet, “Smoking and risk of tuberculosis incidence, mortality, and recurrence in South Korean men and women,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 170, no. 12, pp. 1478–1485, 2009.
- H. H. Lin, M. Ezzati, H. Y. Chang, and M. Murray, “Association between tobacco smoking and active tuberculosis in Taiwan: prospective cohort study,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 180, no. 5, pp. 475–480, 2009.
- S. Den Boon, S. W. P. Van Lill, M. W. Borgdorff et al., “Association between smoking and tuberculosis infection: a population survey in a high tuberculosis incidence area,” Thorax, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 555–557, 2005.
- C. C. Leung, W. W. Yew, W. S. Law et al., “Smoking and tuberculosis among silicotic patients,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 745–750, 2007.
- H. Hussain, S. Akhtar, and D. Nanan, “Prevalence of and risk factors associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in prisoners, North West Frontier Province, Pakistan,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 794–799, 2003.
- A. J. Plant, R. E. Watkins, B. Gushulak et al., “Predictors of tuberculin reactivity among prospective Vietnamese migrants: the effect of smoking,” Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 37–45, 2002.
- S. A. McCurdy, D. S. Arretz, and R. O. Bates, “Tuberculin reactivity among California Hispanic migrant farm workers,” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, vol. 32, pp. 600–605, 1997.
- M. Nisar, C. S. D. Williams, D. Ashby, and P. D. O. Davies, “Tuberculin testing in residential homes for the elderly,” Thorax, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 1257–1260, 1993.
- M. Pai, “Spectrum of latent tuberculosis existing tests cannot resolve the underlying phenotypes,” Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol. 8, article 242, 2010.
- P. A. Lobue and K. G. Castro, “Is it time to replace the tuberculin skin test with a blood test?” The Journal of The American Medical Association, vol. 308, pp. 241–242, 2012.
- R. S. Garfein, R. Lozada, L. Liu et al., “High prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico,” International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 626–632, 2009.
- R. S. Garfein, “Serial testing using QuantiFERON TB Gold In-tube assay in a high-risk population,” in Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Symposium on Interferon Gamma Release Assays, Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA, 2012.
- S. A. Strathdee, R. Lozada, R. A. Pollini et al., “Individual, social, and environmental influences associated with HIV infection among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 369–376, 2008.
- D. D. Heckathorn, “Respondent-driven sampling II: deriving valid population estimates from chain-referral samples of hidden populations,” Social Problems, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 11–34, 2002.
- M. J. Salganik, “Respondent-driven sampling in the real world,” Epidemiology, vol. 23, pp. 148–150, 2012.
- M. Pai, R. Joshi, S. Dogra et al., “Serial testing of health care workers for tuberculosis using interferon-γ assay,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 174, no. 3, pp. 349–355, 2006.
- L. A. McNutt, C. Wu, X. Xue, and J. P. Hafner, “Estimating the relative risk in cohort studies and clinical trials of common outcomes,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 157, no. 10, pp. 940–943, 2003.
- D. Spiegelman and E. Hertzmark, “Easy SAS calculations for risk or prevalence ratios and differences,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 162, no. 3, pp. 199–200, 2005.
- D. Abramovitz, E. M. Volz, S. A. Strathdee, T. L. Patterson, A. Vera, and S. D. W. Frost, “Using respondent-driven sampling in a hidden population at risk of HIV infection: who do HIV-positive recruiters recruit?” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 750–756, 2009.
- S. Greenland, “Modeling and variable selection in epidemiologic analysis,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 340–349, 1989.
- D. G. Kleinbaum, L. L. Kupper, K. E. Muller, and N. Azhar, Applied Regression Analysis and Other Multivariable Methods, Duxbury Press, North Scituate, Mass, USA, 4th edition, 2008.
- L. Arcavi and N. L. Benowitz, “Cigarette smoking and infection,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 164, no. 20, pp. 2206–2216, 2004.
- J. Garmendia, P. Morey, and B. J. Antonio, “Impact of cigarette smoke exposure on host-bacterial pathogen interactions,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 467–477, 2012.
- R. H. Anderson, F. S. Sy, S. Thompson, and C. Addy, “Cigarette smoking and tuberculin skin test conversion among incarcerated adults,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 175–181, 1997.
- R. N. van Zyl-Smit, A. Zwerling, K. Dheda, and M. Pai, “Within-subject variability of interferon-g assay results for tuberculosis and boosting effect of tuberculin skin testing: a systematic review,” PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 12, Article ID e8517, 2009.
- A. Zwerling, S. van den Hof, J. Scholten, F. Cobelens, D. Menzies, and M. Pai, “Interferon-gamma release assays for tuberculosis screening of healthcare workers: a systematic review,” Thorax, vol. 67, pp. 62–70, 2012.
- S. Den Boon, S. Verver, B. J. Marais et al., “Association between passive smoking and infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in children,” Pediatrics, vol. 119, no. 4, pp. 734–739, 2007.
- S. Basu, D. Stuckler, A. Bitton, and S. A. Glantz, “Projected effects of tobacco smoking on worldwide tuberculosis control: mathematical modelling analysis,” British Medical Journal, vol. 343, article d5506, 2011.