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PPAR Research
Volume 2007 (2007), Article ID 63745, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2007/63745
Review Article

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Acute Lung Injury

1Department of Clinical, Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Messina, Via C. Valeria, Torre Biologica, Policlinico Universitario, Messina 98123, Italy
2Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Messina, Via C. Valeria, Torre Biologica, Policlinico Universitario, Messina 98123, Italy

Received 22 December 2006; Revised 8 February 2007; Accepted 2 May 2007

Academic Editor: Jesse Roman

Copyright © 2007 Rosanna Di Paola and Salvatore Cuzzocrea. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PPARs regulate several metabolic pathways by binding to sequence-specific PPAR response elements in the promoter region of target genes, including lipid biosynthesis and glucose metabolism. Recently, PPARs and their respective ligands have been implicated as regulators of cellular inflammatory and immune responses. These molecules are thought to exert anti-inflammatory effects by negatively regulating the expression of proinflammatory genes. Several studies have demonstrated that PPAR ligands possess anti-inflammatory properties and that these properties may prove helpful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the lung. This review will outline the anti-inflammatory effects of PPARs and PPAR ligands and discuss their potential therapeutic effects in animal models of inflammatory lung disease.