- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 929052, 9 pages
The PPAR Gamma Agonist Troglitazone Regulates Erk 1/2 Phosphorylation via a PPARγ-Independent, MEK-Dependent Pathway in Human Prostate Cancer Cells
1Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37208, USA
2Basic Science and Craniofacial Biology, New York University College of Dentistry, 345 East 24th Street, New York City, NY 10010, USA
Received 1 September 2011; Revised 22 November 2011; Accepted 23 November 2011
Academic Editor: R. P. Phipps
Copyright © 2012 Adrienne Bolden et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- B. M. Forman, P. Tontonoz, J. Chen, R. P. Brun, B. M. Spiegelman, and R. M. Evans, “15-deoxy-Δ12, 14-prostaglandin J2 is a ligand for the adipocyte determination factor PPARγ,” Cell, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 803–812, 1995.
- J. M. Lehmann, L. B. Moore, T. A. Smith-Oliver, W. O. Wilkison, T. M. Willson, and S. A. Kliewer, “An antidiabetic thiazolidinedione is a high affinity ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ),” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 270, no. 22, pp. 12953–12956, 1995.
- J. J. Nolan, B. Ludvik, P. Beerdsen, M. Joyce, and J. Olefsky, “Improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in obese subjects treated with troglitazone,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 331, no. 18, pp. 1188–1193, 1994.
- E. Elstner, C. Müller, K. Koshizuka et al., “Ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptory and retinoic acid receptor inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in BNX mice,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 95, no. 15, pp. 8806–8811, 1998.
- K. Y. Kim, S. S. Kim, and H. G. Cheon, “Differential anti-proliferative actions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists in MCF-7 breast cancer cells,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 530–540, 2006.
- C. Qin, R. Burghardt, R. Smith, M. Wormke, J. Stewart, and S. Safe, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonists induce proteasome-dependent degradation of cyclin D1 and estrogen receptor α in MCF-7 breast cancer cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 958–964, 2003.
- F. Yin, S. Wakino, Z. Liu et al., “Troglitazone inhibits growth of MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells by targeting G1 cell cycle regulators,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 286, no. 5, pp. 916–922, 2001.
- C. L. Chaffer, D. M. Thomas, E. W. Thompson, and E. D. Williams, “PPARγ-independent induction of growth arrest and apoptosis in prostate and bladder carcinoma,” BMC Cancer, vol. 6, article 53, 2006.
- Y. F. Guan, Y. H. Zhang, R. M. Breyer, L. Davis, and M. D. Breyer, “Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in human transitional bladder cancer and its role in inducing cell death,” Neoplasia, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 330–339, 1999.
- W. K. Leung, A. Bai, V. Y. W. Chan et al., “Effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ ligands on growth and gene expression profiles of gastric cancer cells,” Gut, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 331–338, 2004.
- M. S. Lin, W. C. Chen, X. Bai, and Y. D. Wang, “Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ inhibits cell growth via apoptosis and arrest of the cell cycle in human colorectal cancer,” Journal of Digestive Diseases, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 82–88, 2007.
- S. Takano, T. Kubota, H. Nishibori et al., “Pioglitazone, a ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ acts as an inhibitor of colon cancer liver metastasis,” Anticancer Research, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 3593–3599, 2008.
- T. Yoshizumi, T. Ohta, I. Ninomiya et al., “Thiazolidinedione, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligand, inhibits growth and metastasis of HT-29 human colon cancer cells through differentiation-promoting effects,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 631–639, 2004.
- T. O. Akinyeke and L. V. Stewart, “Troglitazone suppresses c-Myc levels in human prostate cancer cells via a PPARγ-independent mechanism,” Cancer Biology and Therapy, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1046–1058, 2011.
- B. E. Lyles, T. O. Akinyeke, P. E. Moss, and L. V. Stewart, “Thiazolidinediones regulate expression of cell cycle proteins in human prostate cancer cells via PPARγ-dependent and PPARγ-independent pathways,” Cell Cycle, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 268–277, 2009.
- E. Mueller, M. Smith, P. Sarraf et al., “Effects of ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in human prostate cancer,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 97, no. 20, pp. 10990–10995, 2000.
- S. B. Shappell, R. A. Gupta, S. Manning et al., “15S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and inhibits proliferation in PC3 prostate carcinoma cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 497–503, 2001.
- T. Kubota, K. Koshizuka, E. A. Williamson et al., “Ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Troglitazone) has potent antitumor effect against human prostate cancer both in vitro and in vivo,” Cancer Research, vol. 58, no. 15, pp. 3344–3352, 1998.
- D. Panigrahy, S. Singer, L. Q. Shen et al., “PPARγ ligands inhibit primary tumor growth and metastasis by inhibiting angiogenesis,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 110, no. 7, pp. 923–932, 2002.
- J. I. Hisatake, T. Ikezoe, M. Carey, S. Holden, S. Tomoyasu, and H. P. Koeffler, “Down-regulation of prostate-specific antigen expression by ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in human prostate cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 60, no. 19, pp. 5494–5498, 2000.
- C. W. Shiau, C. C. Yang, S. K. Kulp et al., “Thiazolidenediones mediate apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in part through inhibition of Bcl-xL/Bcl-2 functions independently of PPARγ,” Cancer Research, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 1561–1569, 2005.
- S. K. Radhakrishnan and A. L. Gartel, “The PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone post-transcriptionally induces p21 in PC3 prostate cancer but not in other cell lines,” Cell Cycle, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 582–584, 2005.
- S. Wei, L.-F. Lin, C.-C. Yang et al., “Thiazolidinediones modulate the expression of β-catenin and other cell-cycle regulatory proteins by targeting the F-box proteins of Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein E3 ubiquitin ligase independently of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 725–733, 2007.
- S. Wei, H. C. Yang, H. C. Chuang et al., “A novel mechanism by which thiazolidinediones facilitate the proteasomal degradation of cyclin D1 in cancer cells,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 283, no. 39, pp. 26759–26770, 2008.
- I. Wortzel and R. Seger, “The ERK cascade: distinct functions within various subcellular organelles,” Genes and Cancer, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 195–209, 2011.
- Y. Mebratu and Y. Tesfaigzi, “How ERK1/2 activation controls cell proliferation and cell death is subcellular localization the answer?” Cell Cycle, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 1168–1175, 2009.
- D. Gioeli, J. W. Mandell, G. R. Petroni, H. F. Frierson, and M. J. Weber, “Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase associated with prostate cancer progression,” Cancer Research, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 279–284, 1999.
- H. Oka, Y. Chatani, M. Kohno, M. Kawakita, and O. Ogawa, “Constitutive activation of the 41- and 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in the progression of prostate cancer to an androgen-independent state,” International Journal of Urology, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 899–905, 2005.
- O. S. Gardner, B. J. Dewar, H. S. Earp, J. M. Samet, and L. M. Graves, “Dependence of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligand-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling on epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 47, pp. 46261–46269, 2003.
- S. J. Baek, L. C. Wilson, L. C. Hsi, and T. E. Eling, “Troglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) ligand, selectively induces the early growth response-1 gene independently of PPARγ: a novel mechanism for its anti-tumorigenic activity,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 8, pp. 5845–5853, 2003.
- K. H. Kim, Y. S. Cho, J. M. Park, S. O. Yoon, K. W. Kim, and A. S. Chung, “Pro-MMP-2 activation by the PPARγ agonist, ciglitazone, induces cell invasion through the generation of ROS and the activation of ERK,” FEBS Letters, vol. 581, no. 17, pp. 3303–3310, 2007.
- F. Chen, M. Wang, J. P. O'Connor, M. He, T. Tripathi, and L. E. Harrison, “Phosphorylation of PPARγ via active ERK1/2 Leads to its physical association with p65 and inhibition of NF-κβ,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 732–744, 2003.
- M. Li, T. W. Lee, A. P. C. Yim, T. S. K. Mok, and G. G. Chen, “Apoptosis induced by troglitazone is both peroxisome proliterator-activated receptor-γ- and ERK-dependent in human non-small lung cancer cells,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 209, no. 2, pp. 428–438, 2006.
- S. Chbicheb, X. Yao, J.-L. Rodeau et al., “EGR1 expression: a calcium and ERK1/2 mediated PPARγ-independent event involved in the antiproliferative effect of 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 and thiazolidinediones in breast cancer cells,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 81, no. 9, pp. 1087–1097, 2011.
- M. Adams, M. J. Reginato, D. Shao, M. A. Lazar, and V. K. Chatterjee, “Transcriptional activation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ is inhibited by phosphorylation at a consensus mitogen-activated protein kinase site,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 8, pp. 5128–5132, 1997.
- H. S. Camp and S. R. Tafuri, “Regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activity by mitogen-activated protein kinase,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 16, pp. 10811–10816, 1997.
- E. Hu, J. B. Kim, P. Sarraf, and B. M. Spiegelman, “Inhibition of adipogenesis through MAP kinase-mediated phosphorylation of PPARγ,” Science, vol. 274, no. 5295, pp. 2100–2103, 1996.
- P. E. Moss, B. E. Lyles, and L. V. Stewart, “The PPARγ ligand ciglitazone regulates androgen receptor activation differently in androgen-dependent versus androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells,” Experimental Cell Research, vol. 316, no. 20, pp. 3478–3488, 2010.
- C. J. Sherr and J. M. Roberts, “CDK inhibitors: positive and negative regulators of G1-phase progression,” Genes and Development, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1501–1512, 1999.
- R. H. Weiss, “p21Waf1/Cip1 as a therapeutic target in breast and other cancers,” Cancer Cell, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 425–429, 2003.
- M. Yamada, K. Horiguchi, R. Umezawa et al., “Troglitazone, a ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, stabilizes NUCB2 (nesfatin) mRNA by activating the ERK1/2 pathway: isolation and characterization of the human NUCB2 gene,” Endocrinology, vol. 151, no. 6, pp. 2494–2503, 2010.
- S. Papineni, S. Chintharlapalli, and S. Safe, “Methyl 2-cyano-3,11-dioxo-18β-olean-1,12-dien-30-oate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist that induces receptor-independent apoptosis in LNCaP prostate cancer cells,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 553–565, 2008.
- E. Burgermeister, D. Chuderland, T. Hanoch, M. Meyer, M. Liscovitch, and R. Seger, “Interaction with MEK causes nuclear export and downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 803–817, 2007.
- M. A. Bae and B. J. Song, “Critical role of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase activation in troglitazone-induced apoptosis of human HepG2 hepatoma cells,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 401–408, 2003.
- F. Yin, D. Bruemmer, F. Blaschke, W. A. Hsueh, R. E. Law, and A. J. Van Herle, “Signaling pathways involved in induction of GADD45 gene expression and apoptosis by troglitazone in human MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells,” Oncogene, vol. 23, no. 26, pp. 4614–4623, 2004.