About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
PPAR Research
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 310948, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/310948
Research Article

PPARγ Regulates Genes Involved in Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Secretion in Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells of Dairy Goats

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Agriculture, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China

Received 9 December 2012; Revised 3 February 2013; Accepted 12 March 2013

Academic Editor: Juan J. Loor

Copyright © 2013 Hengbo Shi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Y. Wan, A. Saghatelian, L. W. Chong, C. L. Zhang, B. F. Cravatt, and R. M. Evans, “Maternal PPARγ protects nursing neonates by suppressing the production of inflammatory milk,” Genes and Development, vol. 21, no. 15, pp. 1895–1908, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. Bionaz and J. J. Loor, “ACSL1, AGPAT6, FABP3, LPIN1, and SLC27A6 are the most abundant isoforms in bovine mammary tissue and their expression is affected by stage of lactation,” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 138, no. 6, pp. 1019–1024, 2008. View at Scopus
  3. M. Bionaz and J. J. Loor, “Gene networks driving bovine milk fat synthesis during the lactation cycle,” BMC Genomics, vol. 9, no. 1, article 366, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. R. Kast-Woelbern, S. L. Dana, R. M. Cesario et al., “Rosiglitazone induction of Insig-1 in white adipose tissue reveals a novel interplay of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and sterol regulatory element-binding protein in the regulation of adipogenesis,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 279, no. 23, pp. 23908–23915, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. K. G. Kadegowda, M. Bionaz, L. S. Piperova, R. A. Erdman, and J. J. Loor, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation and long-chain fatty acids alter lipogenic gene networks in bovine mammary epithelial cells to various extents,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 92, no. 9, pp. 4276–4289, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. O. Mani, M. T. Sorensen, K. Sejrsen, R. M. Bruckmaier, and C. Albrecht, “Differential expression and localization of lipid transporters in the bovine mammary gland during the pregnancy-lactation cycle,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 92, no. 8, pp. 3744–3756, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Bionaz, K. Periasamy, S. L. Rodriguez-Zas et al., “Old and new stories: revelations from functional analysis of the bovine mammary transcriptome during the lactation cycle,” PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 3, Article ID e33268, 2012.
  8. R. Zou, G. Xu, X. C. Liu et al., “PPARγ agonists inhibit TGF-β-PKA signaling in glomerulosclerosis,” Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Z. Wang, J. Luo, W. Wang, W. Zhao, and X. Lin, “Characterization and culture of isolated primary dairy goat mammary gland epithelial cells,” Chinese Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1123–1127, 2010. View at Scopus
  10. J. Luo, Z. L. Deng, X. Luo et al., “A protocol for rapid generation of recombinant adenoviruses using the AdEasy system,” Nature Protocols, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 1236–1247, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. Ostapchuk and P. Hearing, “Control of adenovirus packaging,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 25–35, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Gou, T. Weng, Y. Wang et al., “A novel approach for the construction of multiple shRNA expression vectors,” The Journal of Gene Medicine, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 751–763, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. Ramunno, G. Cosenza, A. Rando et al., “Comparative analysis of gene sequence of goat CSN1S1 F and N alleles and characterization of CSN1S1 transcript variants in mammary gland,” Gene, vol. 345, no. 2, pp. 289–299, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Bionaz, C. R. Baumrucker, E. Shirk, J. P. Vanden Heuvel, E. Block, and G. A. Varga, “Short communication: characterization of Madin-Darby bovine kidney cell line for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: temporal response and sensitivity to fatty acids,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 2808–2813, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. M. Bionaz and J. J. Loor, “Identification of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in the bovine mammary gland during the lactation cycle,” Physiological Genomics, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 312–319, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Lehrke and M. A. Lazar, “The many faces of PPARγ,” Cell, vol. 123, no. 6, pp. 993–999, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Tontonoz and B. M. Spiegelman, “Fat and beyond: the diverse biology of PPARγ,” Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol. 77, pp. 289–312, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. L. Houseknecht, B. M. Cole, and P. J. Steele, “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and its ligands: a review,” Domestic Animal Endocrinology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Lee, F. Elwood, J. McNally et al., “T0070907, a selective ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, functions as an antagonist of biochemical and cellular activities,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 22, pp. 19649–19657, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. M. Way, W. W. Harrington, K. K. Brown et al., “Comprehensive messenger ribonucleic acid profiling reveals that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activation has coordinate effects on gene expression in multiple insulin-sensitive tissues,” Endocrinology, vol. 142, no. 3, pp. 1269–1277, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Kolak, H. Yki-Järvinen, K. Kannisto et al., “Effects of chronic rosiglitazone therapy on gene expression in human adipose tissue in vivo in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 720–724, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Kawai and C. J. Rosen, “PPARγ: a circadian transcription factor in adipogenesis and osteogenesis,” Nature Reviews Endocrinology, vol. 6, no. 11, pp. 629–636, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. Ma and B. A. Corl, “Transcriptional regulation of lipid synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells by sterol regulatory element binding protein-1,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 3743–3755, 2012.
  24. A. Chawla, W. A. Boisvert, C. H. Lee et al., “A PPARγ-LXR-ABCA1 pathway in macrophages is involved in cholesterol efflux and atherogenesis,” Molecular Cell, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 161–171, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. W. McFadden and B. A. Corl, “Activation of liver X receptor (LXR) enhances de novo fatty acid synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 93, no. 10, pp. 4651–4658, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. B. B. Lowell, “PPARγ: an essential regulator of adipogenesis and modulator of fat cell function,” Cell, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 239–242, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. Fan, S. Ikuyama, J. Q. Gu et al., “Oleic acid-induced ADRP expression requires both AP-1 and PPAR response elements, and is reduced by Pycnogenol through mRNA degradation in NMuLi liver cells,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 297, no. 1, pp. E112–E123, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. König, A. Koch, J. Spielmann et al., “Activation of PPARα and PPARγ reduces triacylglycerol synthesis in rat hepatoma cells by reduction of nuclear SREBP-1,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 605, no. 1–3, pp. 23–30, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Bionaz, K. Periasamy, S. L. Rodriguez-Zas, W. L. Hurley, and J. J. Loor, “A novel dynamic impact approach (DIA) for functional analysis of time-course Omics studies: validation using the bovine mammary transcriptome,” PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 3, Article ID e32455, 2012.
  30. K. Wilken-Jensen, “Nutrition. Goat's milk can be extremely beneficial in cow's milk allergy,” Sygeplejersken, vol. 84, no. 50, pp. 23–24, 1984. View at Scopus
  31. W. E. Ackerman, X. L. Zhang, B. H. Rovin, and D. A. Kniss, “Modulation of cytokine-induced cyclooxygenase 2 expression by PPARG ligands through NFκB signal disruption in human WISH and amnion cells,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 527–535, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus