About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Pathology Research International
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 247923, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/247923
Review Article

Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Gastrointestinal Disease: Common Endoscopic Biopsy Diagnoses

1Department of Pathology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS 39216, USA
2Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS 39216, USA

Received 1 December 2010; Accepted 7 February 2011

Academic Editor: Liron Pantanowitz

Copyright © 2011 Feriyl Bhaijee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. A. Knox, D. Spiegelman, S. C. Skinner, et al., “Diarrhea and abnormalities of gastrointestinal function in a cohort of men and women with HIV infection,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 95, no. 12, pp. 3482–3489, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Di Lollo and S. Tozzinni, “Pathology,” in Textbook-Atlas of Intestinal Infections in AIDS, D. Dionisio, Ed., pp. 211–231, Springer, Milan, Italia, 2003.
  3. P. Pellecchia and L. J. Brandt, “Intestinal abnormalities in AIDS,” in Gastroenterological Endoscopy, M. Classen, G. N. J. Tytgat, and C. J. Lightdale, Eds., pp. 753–765, Thieme, Stuttgart, Germany, 2nd edition, 2010.
  4. J. D. Rich, J. M. Crawford, S. N. Kazanjian, and P. H. Kazanjian, “Discrete gastrointestinal mass lesions caused by cytomegalovirus in patients with AIDS: report of three cases and review,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 609–614, 1992. View at Scopus
  5. F. Clayton and C. H. Clayton, “Gastrointestinal pathology in HIV-infected patients,” Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 191–240, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. M. Wilcox and D. A. Schwartz, “Endoscopic characterization of idiopathic esophageal ulceration associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 251–256, 1993. View at Scopus
  7. M. Nkuize, S. De Wit, V. Muls, M. Arvanitakis, and M. Buset, “Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy,” HIV Medicine, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 412–417, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  8. H. M. Chiu, M. S. Wu, C. C. Hung, C. T. Shun, and J. T. Lin, “Low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori but high prevalence of cytomegalovirus-associated peptic ulcer disease in AIDS patients: comparative study of symptomatic subjects evaluated by endoscopy and CD4 counts,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 423–428, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. G. Varsky, M. C. Correa, N. Sarmiento et al., “Prevalence and etiology of gastroduodenal ulcer in HIV-positive patients: a comparative study of 497 symptomatic subjects evaluated by endoscopy,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 935–940, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  10. H. Y. Sun, M. Y. Chen, M. S. Wu et al., “Endoscopic appearance of GI mycobacteriosis caused by the Mycobacterium avium complex in a patient with AIDS: case report and review,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 775–779, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. M. Knowles and A. Chadburn, “Lymphadenopathy and the lymphoid neoplasms associated with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome,” in Neoplastic Hematopathology, D. M. Knowles, Ed., pp. 987–1090, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 2nd edition, 2000.
  12. E. T. Katabira, “Epidemiology and management of diarrheal disease in HIV-infected patients,” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 164–167, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. Weber, B. Ledergerber, R. Zbinden et al., “Enteric infections and diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons: prospective community-based cohort study. Swiss HIV Cohort Study,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 13, pp. 1473–1480, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. S. S. Lu, “Pathophysiology of HIV-associated diarrhea,” Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 175–189, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. N. Janoff, P. D. Smith, and M. J. Blaser, “Acute antibody responses to Giardia lamblia are depressed in patients with AIDS,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 157, no. 4, pp. 798–804, 1988. View at Scopus
  16. D. P. Kotler, “HIV infection and the gastrointestinal tract,” AIDS, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 107–117, 2005. View at Scopus
  17. F. Clayton, D. P. Kotler, S. K. Kuwada et al., “Gp120-induced Bob/GPR15 activation: a possible cause of human immunodeficiency virus enteropathy,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 159, no. 5, pp. 1933–1939, 2001. View at Scopus
  18. P. Feuerstadt and L. J. Brandt, “Infectious diseases of the intestines,” in Gastroenterological Endoscopy, M. Classen, G. N. J. Tytgat, and C. J. Lightdale, Eds., pp. 742–752, Thieme, Stuttgart, Germany, 2nd edition, 2010.
  19. V. C. Emery, “Investigation of CMV disease in immunocompromised patients,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 84–88, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. T. Dieterich and M. Rahmin, “Cytomegalovirus colitis in AIDS: presentation in 44 patients and a review of the literature,” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol. 4, supplement 1, pp. S29–S35, 1991. View at Scopus
  21. C. M. Wilcox, N. Chalasani, A. Lazenby, and D. A. Schwartz, “Cytomegalovirus colitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a clinical and endoscopic study,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 39–43, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. O. Marques, M. Averbach, E. C. A. Zanoni, P. A. F. P. Corrêa, J. L. Paccos, and R. Cutait, “Cytomegaloviral colitis in HIV positive patients: endoscopic findings,” Arquivos de Gastroenterologia, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 315–319, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Blanshard, Y. Benhamou, E. Dohin, J. O. Lernestedt, B. G. Gazzard, and C. Katlama, “Treatment of AIDS-associated gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus infection with foscarnet and ganciclovir: a randomized comparison,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 172, no. 3, pp. 622–628, 1995. View at Scopus
  24. R. A. Clark, D. Greer, W. Atkinson, G. T. Valainis, and N. Hyslop, “Spectrum of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in 68 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus,” Reviews of Infectious Diseases, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 768–777, 1990. View at Scopus
  25. S. Antinori, C. Magni, M. Nebuloni et al., “Histoplasmosis among human immunodeficiency virus-infected people in Europe: report of 4 cases and review of the literature,” Medicine, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 22–36, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. K. N. Suh, T. Anekthananon, and P. R. Mariuz, “Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS: case report and review,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 483–491, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. C. J. Kahi, L. J. Wheat, S. D. Allen, and G. A. Sarosi, “Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 220–231, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. P. R. Becherer, M. Sokol-Anderson, J. H. Joist, and T. Milligan, “Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis presenting as hematochezia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected hemophilic patients,” American Journal of Hematology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 229–231, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. D. Klausner, R. Kohn, and C. Kent, “Etiology of clinical proctitis among men who have sex with men,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 300–302, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. E. Hamlyn and C. Taylor, “Sexually transmitted proctitis,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 82, no. 973, pp. 733–736, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. D. Peppa, I. Plumb, J. Du Parcq, S. Taylor, and R. F. Miller, “Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis in an HIV-infected patient living in a non-endemic area,” International Journal of STD and AIDS, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 864–865, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus