About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Pathology Research International
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 597497, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/597497
Review Article

Molecular Events in Primary and Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma: A Review

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 0W8
2Royal University Hospital, Room 2868 G-Wing, 103 Hospital Drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 0W8
3Department of Surgery, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 0W8

Received 25 December 2011; Accepted 23 February 2012

Academic Editor: Marco Volante

Copyright © 2012 Rani Kanthan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Colorectal Cancer Statistics at a Glance, http://www.cancer.ca/canada-wide/about%20cancer/cancer%20statistics/stats%20at%20a%20glance/colorectal%20cancer.aspx, 2011.
  2. E. R. Fearon, “Molecular genetics of colorectal cancer,” Annual Review of Pathology, vol. 6, pp. 479–507, 2011.
  3. D. L. Worthley and B. A. Leggett, “Colorectal cancer: molecular features and clinical opportunities,” The Clinical Biochemist Reviews, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 31–39, 2010.
  4. N. Sengupta, K. A. Gill, T. S. MacFie et al., “Management of colorectal cancer: a role for genetics in prevention and treatment?” Pathology Research and Practice, vol. 204, no. 7, pp. 469–477, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. V. Deschoolmeester, M. Baay, P. Specenier, F. Lardon, and J. B. Vermorken, “A review of the most promising biomarkers in colorectal cancer: one step closer to targeted therapy,” Oncologist, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 699–731, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. S. Kahng, “Genetic aspects of non-polypoid colorectal neoplasms,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 573–578, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Ogino, A. T. Chan, C. S. Fuchs, and E. Giovannucci, “Molecular pathological epidemiology of colorectal neoplasia: an emerging transdisciplinary and interdisciplinary field,” Gut, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. D. Markowitz and M. M. Bertagnolli, “Molecular basis of colorectal cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 25, pp. 2404–2460, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Migliore, F. Migheli, R. Spisni, and F. Copped, “Genetics, cytogenetics, and epigenetics of colorectal cancer,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2011, Article ID 792362, 19 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. M. Costedio and J. Church, “Pathways of carcinogenesis are reflected in patterns of polyp pathology in patients screened for colorectal cancer,” Diseases of the Colon & Rectum, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 1224–1228, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. E. R. Fearon and B. Vogelstein, “A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis,” Cell, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 759–767, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. R. Boland and A. Goel, “Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer,” Gastroenterology, vol. 138, no. 6, pp. 2073–e3, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. S. Pino and D. C. Chung, “The chromosomal instability pathway in colon cancer,” Gastroenterology, vol. 138, no. 6, pp. 2059–2072, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Perea, M. Lomas, and M. Hidalgo, “Molecular basis of colorectal cancer: towards an individualized management,” Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 29–35, 2011.
  15. A. H. Sillars-Hardebol, B. Carvalho, M. De Wit et al., “Identification of key genes for carcinogenic pathways associated with colorectal adenoma-to-carcinoma progression,” Tumor Biology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 89–96, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. T. Winder and H. J. Lenz, “Molecular predictive and prognostic markers in colon cancer,” Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 550–556, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Goel, T. Nagasaka, C. N. Arnold et al., “The CpG island methylator phenotype and chromosomal instability are inversely correlated in sporadic colorectal cancer,” Gastroenterology, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 127–138, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. W. M. Grady and J. M. Carethers, “Genomic and epigenetic instability in colorectal cancer pathogenesis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 1079–1099, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Ashktorab, A. A. Schäffer, M. Daremipouran, D. T. Smoot, E. Lee, and H. Brim, “Distinct genetic alterations in colorectal cancer,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 1, Article ID e8879, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. W. B. Dalton and V. W. Yang, “Mitotic origins of chromosomal instability in colorectal cancer,” Current Colorectal Cancer Reports, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 59–64, 2007.
  21. B. M. Brenner and D. Rosenberg, “High-throughput SNP/CGH approaches for the analysis of genomic instability in colorectal cancer,” Mutation Research, vol. 693, no. 1-2, pp. 46–52, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. A. Booth, “Minimally invasive biomarkers for detection and staging of colorectal cancer,” Cancer Letters, vol. 249, no. 1, pp. 87–96, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Walther, R. Houlston, and I. Tomlinson, “Association between chromosomal instability and prognosis in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis,” Gut, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 941–950, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. B. Geiersbach and W. S. Samowitz, “Microsatellite instability and colorectal cancer,” Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, vol. 125, pp. 1269–1277, 2011.
  25. B. Iacopetta, F. Grieu, and B. Amanuel, “Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer,” Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 260–269, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. de la Chapelle and H. Hampel, “Clinical relevance of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 20, pp. 3380–3387, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. L. Yim, “Microsatellite instability in metastatic colorectal cancer: a review of pathology, response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome,” Medical Oncology. In press.
  28. C. P. Raut, T. M. Pawlik, and M. A. Rodriguez-Bigas, “Clinicopathologic features in colorectal cancer patients with microsatellite instability,” Mutation Research, vol. 568, no. 2, pp. 275–282, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. S. Huang, F. A. Farraye, S. Yang, and M. J. O'Brien, “The Clinical Significance of Serrated Polyps,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. R. Jass, “Classification of colorectal cancer based on correlation of clinical, morphological and molecular features,” Histopathology, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 113–130, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. C. Snover, “Update on the serrated pathway to colorectal carcinoma,” Human Pathology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. M. Bellizzi and W. L. Frankel, “Colorectal cancer due to deficiency in DNA mismatch repair function: a review,” Advances in Anatomic Pathology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 405–417, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. Venkatachalam, M. J. Ligtenberg, N. Hoogerbrugge, D. R. de Bruijn, R. P. Kuiper, and A. Geurts van Kessel, “The epigenetics of (hereditary) colorectal cancer,” Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, vol. 203, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2010. View at Scopus
  34. J. H. Kim, S. H. Shin, H. J. Kwon, N. Y. Cho, and G. H. Kang, “Prognostic implications of CpG island hypermethylator phenotype in colorectal cancers,” Virchows Archiv, vol. 455, no. 6, pp. 485–494, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Y. S. Kim and G. Deng, “Epigenetic changes (aberrant DNA methylation) in colorectal neoplasia,” Gut and Liver, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. Y. W. Cheng, H. Pincas, M. D. Bacolod et al., “CpG island methylator phenotype associates with low-degree chromosomal abnormalities in colorectal cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 14, no. 19, pp. 6005–6013, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. ARAIN.
  38. G. H. Kang, “Four molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer and their precursor lesions,” Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 135, no. 6, pp. 698–703, 2011.
  39. R. Melcher, E. Hartmann, W. Zopf et al., “LOH and copy neutral LOH (cnLOH) act as alternative mechanism in sporadic colorectal cancers with chromosomal and microsatellite instability,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 636–642, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. D. Huang and X. Du, “Crosstalk between tumor cells and microenvironment via Wnt pathway in colorectal cancer dissemination,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 1823–1827, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. W. de Roock, B. Biesmans, J. De Schutter, and S. Tejpar, “Clinical biomarkers in oncology: focus on colorectal cancer,” Molecular Diagnosis and Therapy, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 103–114, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Yachida, S. Mudali, S. A. Martin, E. A. Montgomery, and C. A. Iacobuzio-Donahue, “Beta-catenin nuclear labeling is a common feature of sessile serrated adenomas and correlates with early neoplastic progression after BRAF activation,” American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 1823–1832, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. N. S. Fearnhead, M. P. Britton, and W. F. Bodmer, “The ABC of APC,” Human Molecular Genetics, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 721–733, 2001. View at Scopus
  44. G. R. van den Brink, “Linking pathways in colorectal cancer,” Nature Genetics, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 1038–1039, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. Lièvre, H. Blons, and P. Laurent-Puig, “Oncogenic mutations as predictive factors in colorectal cancer,” Oncogene, vol. 29, no. 21, pp. 3033–3043, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. U. Asghar, E. Hawkes, and D. Cunningham, “Predictive and prognostic biomarkers for targeted therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer,” Clinical Colorectal Cancer, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 274–281, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. O. Slaby, M. Svoboda, J. Michalek, and R. Vyzula, “MicroRNAs in colorectal cancer: translation of molecular biology into clinical application,” Molecular Cancer, vol. 8, p. 102, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. I. de Krijger, L. J. M. Mekenkamp, C. J. A. Punt, and I. D. Nagtegaal, “MicroRNAs in colorectal cancer metastasis,” Journal of Pathology, vol. 224, no. 4, pp. 438–447, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. L. Yang, N. Belaguli, and D. H. Berger, “MicroRNA and colorectal cancer,” World Journal of Surgery, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 638–646, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. Goel and C. R. Boland, “Recent insights into the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer,” Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 47–52, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. J. L. Wong, N. J. Hawkins, and R. L. Ward, “Colorectal cancer: a model for epigenetic tumorigenesis,” Gut, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 140–148, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. S. Early, L. Fontana, and N. O. Davidson, “Translational approaches to addressing complex genetic pathways in colorectal cancer,” Translational Research, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 10–16, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. Kumar, “Commentary: targeting colorectal cancer through molecular biology,” Seminars in Oncology, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. S37–S39, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. T. Winder and H. J. Lenz, “Vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor signaling pathways as therapeutic targets for colorectal cancer,” Gastroenterology, vol. 138, no. 6, pp. 2163–2176, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. Barton, N. Starling, and C. Swanton, “Predictive molecular markers of response to epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR) family-targeted therapies,” Current Cancer Drug Targets, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 799–812, 2010.
  56. A. Pohl, W. Zhang, Y. Ning, P. C. Manegold, G. Lurje, and H. J. Lenz, “Targeting metastatic colorectal cancer in 2008: a long way from 5-FU,” Oncology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 456–462, 2008. View at Scopus
  57. A. Cercek and L. Saltz, “Evolving treatment of advanced colorectal cancer,” Current Oncology Reports, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 153–159, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. D. Kevans, L. M. Wang, K. Sheahan, et al., “Epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT) protein expression in a cohort of stage II colorectal cancer patients with characterized tumor budding and mismatch repair protein status,” International Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1–10, 2011.
  59. I. Zlobec and A. Lugli, “Epithelial mesenchymal transition and tumor budding in aggressive colorectal cancer: tumor budding as oncotarget,” Oncotarget, vol. 1, no. 7, pp. 651–661, 2010.
  60. I. Zlobec, F. Molinari, V. Martin et al., “Tumor budding predicts response to anti-EGFR therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer patients,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 16, no. 38, pp. 4823–4831, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. S. Itzkowitz, R. Brand, L. Jandorf et al., “A simplified, noninvasive Stool DNA test for colorectal cancer detection,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 103, no. 11, pp. 2862–2870, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. D. E. Brenner and G. Rennert, “Fecal DNA biomarkers for the detection of colorectal neoplasia: attractive, but is it feasible?” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 97, no. 15, pp. 1107–1109, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. K. Lenhard, G. T. Bommer, S. Asutay et al., “Analysis of promoter methylation in stool: a novel method for the detection of colorectal cancer,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 142–149, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. F. E. Ahmed, P. Vos, S. IJames et al., “Transcriptomic molecular markers for screening human colon cancer in stool and tissue,” Cancer Genomics and Proteomics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–20, 2007. View at Scopus
  65. P. Nair, S. Lagerholm, S. Dutta et al., “Coprocytobiology: on the nature of cellular elements from stools in the pathophysiology of colonic disease,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. S84–S93, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. D. A. Ahlquist, “Molecular detection of colorectal neoplasia,” Gastroenterology, vol. 138, no. 6, pp. 2127–2139, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. H. Itzkowitz, L. Jandorf, R. Brand et al., “Improved fecal DNA test for colorectal cancer screening,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 111–117, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. R. Kanthan, J. L. Senger, and S. C. Kanthan, “Fecal molecular markers for colorectal cancer screening,” Gastroenterology Research & Practice, vol. 2012, Article ID 184343, 15 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. B. Greenwald, “The stool DNA test: an emerging technology in colorectal cancer screening,” Gastroenterology Nursing, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 28–32, 2005. View at Scopus
  70. A. Loganayagam, “Faecal screening of colorectal cancer,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 454–459, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. D. A. Ahlquist, “Molecular stool screening for colorectal cancer. Using DNA markers may be beneficial, but large scale evaluation is needed,” British Medical Journal, vol. 321, no. 7256, pp. 254–255, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. B. M. Berger, P. C. Schroy, J. L. Rosenberg et al., “Colorectal cancer screening using stool DNA analysis in clinical practice: early clinical experience with respect to patient acceptance and colonoscopic follow-up of abnormal tests,” Clinical Colorectal Cancer, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 338–343, 2006. View at Scopus
  73. J. Creeden, F. Junker, S. Vogel-Ziebolz, and D. Rex, “Serum tests for colorectal cancer screening,” Molecular Diagnosis and Therapy, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 129–141, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. M. S. Kim, J. Lee, and D. Sidransky, “DNA methylation markers in colorectal cancer,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 181–206, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus