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Pain Research and Treatment
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 864605, 8 pages
Phantom Limb Pain: Mechanisms and Treatment Approaches
Department of Neurology & Psychiatry, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA
Received 10 May 2011; Accepted 1 July 2011
Academic Editor: Bjorn A. Meyerson
Copyright © 2011 Bishnu Subedi and George T. Grossberg. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Citations to this Article [31 citations]
The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.
- John McAuley, Richard van Gröningen, and Christopher Green, “Spinal Cord Stimulation for Intractable Pain Following Limb Amputation,” Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface, pp. no–no, 2012.
- Lauren V. Fortington, Jan H. B. Geertzen, Joline C. Bosmans, and Pieter U. Dijkstra, “Bias in Amputation Research; Impact of Subjects Missed from a Prospective Study,” Plos One, vol. 7, no. 8, 2012.
- Kim Abbass, “Efficacy of Gabapentin for Treatment of Adults with Phantom Limb Pain,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 1707–1711, 2012.
- Kiminobu Furukawa, Harue Suzuki, and Jun Fukuda, “Motion Of The Drawing Hand Induces A Progressive Increase In Muscle Activity Of The Non-Dominant Hand In Ramachandran's Mirror-Box Therapy,” Journal Of Rehabilitation Medicine, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 939–943, 2012.
- Helena Knotkova, Ricardo A. Cruciani, Volker M. Tronnier, and Dirk Rasche, “Current and future options for the management of phantom-limb pain,” Journal of Pain Research, vol. 5, pp. 39–49, 2012.
- Paloma González García, M. Pilar Manzano Hernández, M. Teresa Muñoz Tomás, Carlos Martín Hernández, and Mercedes Forcano García, “Phantom limb pain syndrome: Therapeutic approach using mirror therapy in a Geriatric Department,” Revista Espanola de Geriatria y Gerontologia, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 198–201, 2013.
- Matthew R. Mulvey, Helen E. Radford, Helen J. Fawkner, Lynn Hirst, Vera Neumann, and Mark I. Johnson, “Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Phantom Pain and Stump Pain in Adult Amputees,” Pain Practice, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 289–296, 2013.
- K. -U. Kern, P. Bialas, and D. Fangmann, “Prolonged-release tapentadol for phantom pain. A case series,” Schmerz, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 174–+, 2013.
- Sharon M. Mannix, Cliona O'Sullivan, and Gráinne A. Kelly, “Acupuncture for managing phantom-limb syndrome: A systematic review,” Medical Acupuncture, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 23–42, 2013.
- Carina Palzer, Thomas F. Muente, Silke Anders, and Andreas Sprenger, “Itch Relief by Mirror Scratching. A Psychophysical Study,” Plos One, vol. 8, no. 12, 2013.
- Mayra Alejandra Malavera Angarita, Sandra Carrillo Villa, Omar Fernando Gomezese Ribero, Ronald G. García, and Federico Arturo Silva Sieger, “Pathophysiology and treatment of phantom limb pain,” Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology, 2013.
- John McAuley, Richard van Groeningen, and Christopher Green, “Long-Term Outcomes of Spinal Cord Stimulation With Percutaneously Introduced Paddle Leads in the Treatment of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome and Lumboischialgia,” Neuromodulation, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 530–536, 2013.
- Elizabeth Lewis, Donna M. Lloyd, and Martin J. Farrell, “The role of the environment in eliciting phantom-like sensations in non-amputees,” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 3, 2013.
- Simone Hunter, and Katherine H. Taber, “A Look Inside the Mirror Neuron System,” Journal Of Neuropsychiatry And Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 170–175, 2013.
- K-U. Kern, H. Baust, W. Hofmann, R. Holzmueller, C. Maihoefner, and M-L. Heskamp, “Capsaicin 8 % cutaneous patches for phantom limb pain. Results from everyday practice (non-interventional study),” Schmerz, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 374–383, 2014.
- Inger Brueckner, “Amputee Rehabilitation and Preprosthetic Care,” Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 75–+, 2014.
- Zachary McCormick, George Chang-Chien, Benjamin Marshall, Mark Huang, and R. Norman Harden, “Phantom Limb Pain: A Systematic Neuroanatomical-Based Review of Pharmacologic Treatment,” Pain Medicine, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 292–305, 2014.
- Sarah C. Griffin, and Jack W. Tsao, “A mechanism-based classification of phantom limb pain,” Pain, vol. 155, no. 11, pp. 2236–2242, 2014.
- Juanmarco Gutierrez, Sukreet Raju, Jonathan P. Riley, and Nicholas M. Boulis, “Introduction to Neuropathic Pain Syndromes,” Neurosurgery Clinics of North America, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 639–+, 2014.
- Agda M. Andreotti, Marcelo C. Goiato, Eduardo P. Pellizzer, Aldiéris A. Pesqueira, Aimée M. Guiotti, Humberto Gennari-Filho, and Daniela M. dos Santos, “Phantom Eye Syndrome: A Review of the Literature,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, pp. 1–6, 2014.
- Guohong Chai, Xiaohong Sui, Si Li, Longwen He, and Ning Lan, “Characterization of evoked tactile sensation in forearm amputees with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation,” Journal of Neural Engineering, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 066002, 2015.
- D. C. Bosanquet, J. C. D. Glasbey, A. Stimpson, I. M. Williams, and C. P. Twine, “Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Efficacy of Perineural Local Anaesthetic Catheters after Major Lower Limb Amputation,” European Journal Of Vascular And Endovascular Surgery, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 241–249, 2015.
- Merlyn Tilak, Serin Anna Isaac, Jebaraj Fletcher, Lenny Thinagaran Vasanthan, Rajalakshmi Sankaran Subbaiah, Andrew Babu, Rohit Bhide, and George Tharion, “‘Mirror Therapy and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation for Management of Phantom Limb Pain in Amputees - A Single Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial’,” Physiotherapy Research International, 2015.
- Amol Soin, Nemath Syed Shah, and Zi-Ping Fang, “High-Frequency Electrical Nerve Block for Postamputation Pain: A Pilot Study,” Neuromodulation, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 197–205, 2015.
- Hariharan Shankar, Jared Hansen, and Kisha Thomas, “Phantom Pain in a Patient with Brachial Plexus Avulsion Injury,” Pain Medicine, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 777–781, 2015.
- Elia Valentini, Katharina Koch, and Salvatore Maria Aglioti, “Seeing one’s own painful hand positioned in the contralateral space reduces subjective reports of pain and modulates laser evoked potentials,” The Journal of Pain, 2015.
- Chang-Yong Ko, Yunhee Chang, Sol-Bi Kim, Shinki Kim, Gyoosuk Kim, Jeicheong Ryu, and Musung Mun, “Evaluation of physical and emotional responses to vibrotactile stimulation of the forearm in young adults, the elderly, and transradial amputees,” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 138, pp. 87–93, 2015.
- Katarzyna Panczyk, Sylwia Golda, Anna Waszkielewicz, Dorota Zelaszczyk, Agnieszka Gunia-Krzyzak, and Henryk Marona, “Serotonergic System and Its Role in Epilepsy and Neuropathic Pain Treatment: A Review Based on Receptor Ligands,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 21, no. 13, pp. 1723–1740, 2015.
- Dominique Mouraux, Eric Brassinne, Stéphane Sobczak, Antoine Nonclercq, Nadine Warzée, Phillip S. Sizer, Turgay Tuna, and Benoît Penelle, “3D augmented reality mirror visual feedback therapy applied to the treatment of persistent, unilateral upper extremity neuropathic pain: a preliminary study,” Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, pp. 1–7, 2016.
- A. N. Melinyshyn, T. E. Gofton, and V. Schulz, “Supernumerary phantom limbs in ICU patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy,” Neurology, vol. 86, no. 18, pp. 1726–1728, 2016.
- Yuanjie Zeng, Xiaoping Wang, Yuna Guo, Liangliang He, and Jiaxiang Ni, “Coblation of Femoral and Sciatic Nerve for Stump Pain and Phantom Limb Pain: A Case Report,” Pain Practice, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. E35–E41, 2016.