Table 3: Treatments for phantom limb pain.

PharmacotherapySurgical/invasive proceduresAdjuvant therapy

OpioidsStump revisionTranscutaneous nerve stimulation
 MorphineNerve blockMirror therapy
TramadolNeurectomyBiofeedback
Tricyclic AntidepressantsRhizotomy Temperature biofeedback
 AmitriptylineCordotomy Electro myographic biofeedback
 NortriptylineLobectomyMassage
 ImipramineSympathectomyUltrasound
 DesipramineCNS stimulationPhysiotherapy
AntiConvulsants Spinal cord stimulation Sensory discrimination training
 Carbamazepine Deep brain/thalamus stimulationProsthesis training
 Oxcarbazepine Cortical stimulationCognitive behavioral pain management
 GabapentinElectroconvulsive therapy
 Pregabalin
Sodium channel blockers
 Lidocaine
 Bupivacaine
 Mexiletine
NMDA receptor antagonist
 Memantine
Ketamine

Adapted from [4, 41].