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Pain Research and Treatment
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 256024, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/256024
Review Article

Sarcoidosis and Pain Caused by Small-Fiber Neuropathy

1Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Center, P5Q, Postbus 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
2Department of Neurology, Diaconessenhuis Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands

Received 29 June 2012; Accepted 1 October 2012

Academic Editor: Jeffrey J. Borckardt

Copyright © 2012 Lara Heij et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a chronic inflammatory illness and small-fiber neuropathy (SFN) is one of the disabling and often chronic manifestations of the disease. SFN presents with peripheral pain and symptoms of autonomic dysfunction. The character of the pain can be burning or shooting. Besides, allodynia and hyperesthesia can exist. Diagnosis is usually made on the basis of clinical features, in combination with abnormal specialized tests. The aim of treatment is often to reduce pain; however, total pain relieve is seldom achieved. The role of TNF-α in the pathogenesis of SFN in sarcoidosis appears interesting to explore. Novel therapeutic agents such as ARA 290, a nonhematopoietic erythropoietin analogue with potent anti-inflammatory and tissue protective properties, are interesting to explore in the treatment of SFN in sarcoidosis.