- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Pain Research and Treatment
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 486590, 9 pages
Fibromyalgia and Depression
1Center for Neurosensory Disorders, University of North Carolina, CBNo.7280, 3330 Thurston Building, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
2Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
3Integrated Program in Neuroscience, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
4Department of Anesthesia, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
5Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
Received 2 May 2011; Accepted 30 September 2011
Academic Editor: Petra Schweinhardt
Copyright © 2012 Richard H. Gracely et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- F. Wolfe, D. J. Clauw, M.-A. Fitzcharles et al., “Fibromyalgia criteria and severity scales for clinical and epidemiological studies: a modification of the ACR preliminary diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1113–1122, 2011.
- A. Aguglia, V. Salvi, G. Maina, I. Rossetto, and E. Aguglia, “Fibromyalgia syndrome and depressive symptoms: comorbidity and clinical correlates,” Journal of Affective Disorders, 2010.
- L. M. Arnold, J. I. Hudson, P. E. Keck, M. B. Auchenbach, K. N. Javaras, and E. V. Hess, “Comorbidity of fibromyalgia and psychiatric disorders,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 1219–1225, 2006.
- L. B. Marangell, D. J. Clauw, E. Choy et al., “Comparative pain and mood effects in patients with comorbid fibromyalgia and major depressive disorder: secondary analyses of four pooled randomized controlled trials of duloxetine,” Pain, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 31–37, 2011.
- W. S. Wilke, C. E. Gota, and D. J. Muzina, “Fibromyalgia and bipolar disorder: a potential problem?” Bipolar Disorders, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 514–520, 2010.
- K. Kato, P. F. Sullivan, B. Evengård, and N. L. Pedersen, “Importance of genetic influences on chronic widespread pain,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1682–1686, 2006.
- L. A. Bradley, “Pathophysiology of fibromyalgia,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 122, no. 12, pp. S22–S30, 2009.
- J. I. Hudson, L. M. Arnold, P. E. Keck, M. B. Auchenbach, and H. G. Pope, “Family study of fibromyalgia and affective spectrum disorder,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 884–891, 2004.
- V. Maletic and C. L. Raison, “Neurobiology of depression, fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 14, pp. 5291–5338, 2009.
- D. M. Cannon, J. M. Klaver, S. A. Peck, D. Rallis-Voak, K. Erickson, and W. C. Drevets, “Dopamine type-1 receptor binding in major depressive disorder assessed using positron emission tomography and [11C]NNC-112,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1277–1287, 2009.
- K. S. Kendler, C. O. Gardner, M. Gatz, and N. L. Pedersen, “The sources of co-morbidity between major depression and generalized anxiety disorder in a Swedish national twin sample,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 453–462, 2007.
- R. G. Bradley, E. B. Binder, M. P. Epstein et al., “Influence of child abuse on adult depression: moderation by the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 190–200, 2008.
- J. C. Dreher, P. Kohn, B. Kolachana, D. R. Weinberger, and K. F. Berman, “Variation in dopamine genes influences responsivity of the human reward system,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 617–622, 2009.
- L. Pezawas, A. Meyer-Lindenberg, A. L. Goldman et al., “Evidence of biologic epistasis between BDNF and SLC6A4 and implications for depression,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 709–716, 2008.
- A. Caspi, K. Sugden, T. E. Moffitt et al., “Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5631, pp. 386–389, 2003.
- K. S. Kendler, J. W. Kuhn, J. Vittum, C. A. Prescott, and B. Riley, “The interaction of stressful life events and a serotonin transporter polymorphism in the prediction of episodes of major depression: a replication,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 529–535, 2005.
- L. M. Arnold, J. I. Hudson, M. N. Janal, S. Nayak, J. E. Schwartz, and R. M. Gallagher, “Comment on “Familial aggregation of depression in fibromyalgia: a community-based test of alternative hypotheses, Raphael et al., Pain 110 (2004) 449–460”,” Pain, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 409–410, 2004.
- K. G. Raphael, M. N. Janal, S. Nayak, J. E. Schwartz, and R. M. Gallagher, “Familial aggregation of depression in fibromyalgia: a community-based test of alternate hypotheses,” Pain, vol. 110, no. 1-2, pp. 449–460, 2004.
- H. Cohen, D. Buskila, L. Neumann, and R. P. Ebstein, “Confirmation of an association between fibromyalgia and serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism, and relationship to anxiety-related personality traits,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 845–847, 2002.
- M. Offenbaecher, B. Bondy, S. de Jonge et al., “Possible association of fibromyalgia with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 2482–2488, 1999.
- G. Blackburn-Munro and R. E. Blackburn-Munro, “Chronic pain, chronic stress and depression: coincidence or consequence?” Journal of Neuroendocrinology, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1009–1023, 2001.
- L. Johnson, G. Andersson-Lundman, A. Åberg-Wistedt, and A. A. Mathé, “Age of onset in affective disorder: its correlation with hereditary and psychosocial factors,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 139–148, 2000.
- P. Mease, “Fibromyalgia syndrome: review of clinical presentation, pathogenesis, outcome measures, and treatment,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 32, supplement 75, pp. 6–21, 2005.
- E. F. Harkness, G. J. Macfarlane, E. Nahit, A. J. Silman, and J. McBeth, “Mechanical injury and psychosocial factors in the work place predict the onset of widespread body pain: a two-year prospective study among cohorts of newly employed workers,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1655–1664, 2004.
- C. Tsigos and G. P. Chrousos, “Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neuroendocrine factors and stress,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 865–871, 2002.
- J. B. de Souza, P. Goffaux, N. Julien, S. Potvin, J. Charest, and S. Marchand, “Fibromyalgia subgroups: profiling distinct subgroups using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. A preliminary study,” Rheumatology International, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 509–515, 2009.
- T. Giesecke, D. A. Williams, R. E. Harris et al., “Subgrouping of fibromyalgia patients on the basis of pressure-pain thresholds and psychological factors,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 2916–2922, 2003.
- W. Müller, M. Schneider, T. Joos, H. Y. Hsu, and T. Stratz, “Subgroups of fibromyalgia,” Schmerz, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 424–429, 2007.
- E. P. Calandre, J. Garcia-Carrillo, J. M. Garcia-Leiva, F. Rico-Villademoros, R. Molina-Barea, and C. M. Rodriguez-Lopez, “Subgrouping patients with fibromyalgia according to the results of the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire: a replication study,” Rheumatology International. In press.
- M. F. Seidel and W. Müller, “Differential pharmacotherapy for subgroups of fibromyalgia patients with specific consideration of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 1381–1391, 2011.
- K. Thieme, D. C. Turk, and H. Flor, “Comorbid Depression and anxiety in fibromyalgia syndrome: relationship to somatic and psychosocial variables,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 837–844, 2004.
- R. L. Ross, K. D. Jones, R. L. Ward, L. J. Wood, and R. M. Bennett, “Atypical depression is more common than melancholic in fibromyalgia: an observational cohort study,” BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol. 11, article 120, 2010.
- P. W. Gold, K. E. Gabry, M. R. Yasuda, and G. P. Chrousos, “Divergent endocrine abnormalities in melancholic and atypical depression: clinical and pathophysiologic implications,” Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 37–62, 2002.
- L. Gormsen, R. Rosenberg, F. W. Bach, and T. S. Jensen, “Depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life and pain in patients with chronic fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain,” European Journal of Pain, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 127–e1, 2010.
- E. J. Bartley, J. L. Rhudy, and A. E. Williams, “Experimental assessment of affective processing in fibromyalgia,” Journal of Pain, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1151–1160, 2009.
- P. Schweinhardt, K. M. Sauro, and M. C. Bushnell, “Fibromyalgia: a disorder of the brain?” Neuroscientist, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 415–421, 2008.
- B. Banic, S. Petersen-Felix, O. K. Andersen et al., “Evidence for spinal cord hypersensitivity in chronic pain after whiplash injury and in fibromyalgia,” Pain, vol. 107, no. 1-2, pp. 7–15, 2004.
- J. A. Desmeules, C. Cedraschi, E. Rapiti et al., “Neurophysiologic evidence for a central sensitization in patients with fibromyalgia,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 1420–1429, 2003.
- D. C. Ang, R. Chakr, C. R. France et al., “Association of nociceptive responsivity with clinical pain and the moderating effect of depression,” Journal of Pain, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 384–389, 2011.
- T. Giesecke, R. H. Gracely, D. A. Williams, M. E. Geisser, F. W. Petzke, and D. J. Clauw, “The relationship between depression, clinical pain, and experimental pain in a chronic pain cohort,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1577–1584, 2005.
- R. H. Gracely, M. E. Geisser, T. Giesecke et al., “Pain catastrophizing and neural responses to pain among persons with fibromyalgia,” Brain, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 835–843, 2004.
- R. R. Edwards, C. Calahan, G. Mensing, M. Smith, and J. A. Haythornthwaite, “Pain, catastrophizing, and depression in the rheumatic diseases,” Nature Reviews Rheumatology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 216–224, 2011.
- A. K. Rosenstiel and F. J. Keefe, “The use of coping strategies in chronic low back pain patients: relationship to patient characteristics and current adjustment,” Pain, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 33–44, 1983.
- M. J. L. Sullivan and J. L. D'Eon, “Relation between catastrophizing and depression in chronic pain patients,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 260–263, 1990.
- K. B. Jensen, F. Petzke, S. Carville et al., “Anxiety and depressive symptoms in fibromyalgia are related to poor perception of health but not to pain sensitivity or cerebral processing of pain,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 3488–3495, 2010.
- M. B. Max, M. Culnane, and S. C. Schafer, “Amitriptyline relieves diabetic neuropathy pain in patients with normal or depressed mood,” Neurology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 589–596, 1987.
- M. B. Max, S. A. Lynch, J. Muir, S. E. Shoaf, B. Smoller, and R. Dubner, “Effects of desipramine, amitriptyline, and fluoxetine on pain in diabetic neuropathy,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 326, no. 19, pp. 1250–1256, 1992.
- “1990 classification criteria of fibromyalgia from the American College of Rheumatology. Report of the Multicenter Criteria Committee,” Union Medicale du Canada, vol. 119, no. 5, p. 272, 1990.
- L. M. Arnold, Y. Lu, L. J. Crofford et al., “A double-blind, multicenter trial comparing duloxetine with placebo in the treatment of fibromyalgia patients with or without major depressive disorder,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 2974–2984, 2004.
- L. M. Arnold, A. Rosen, Y. L. Pritchett et al., “A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of duloxetine in the treatment of women with fibromyalgia with or without major depressive disorder,” Pain, vol. 119, no. 1–3, pp. 5–15, 2005.
- R. M. Gendreau, M. D. Thorn, J. F. Gendreau et al., “Efficacy of milnacipran in patients with fibromyalgia,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1975–1985, 2005.
- L. Manchikanti, V. Pampati, C. Beyer, and K. Damron, “Do number of pain conditions influence emotional status?” Pain Physician, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 200–205, 2002.
- W. J. Reynolds, B. Chiu, and R. D. Inman, “Plasma substance P levels in fibrositis,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1802–1803, 1988.
- I. J. Russell, M. D. Orr, B. Littman et al., “Elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels of substance P in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1593–1601, 1994.
- M. J. Schwarz, M. Späth, H. Müller-Bardorff, D. E. Pongratz, B. Bondy, and M. Ackenheil, “Relationship of substance P, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and tryptophan in serum of fibromyalgia patients,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 259, no. 3, pp. 196–198, 1999.
- H. Vaeroy, R. Helle, O. Forre, E. Kass, and L. Terenius, “Elevated CSF levels of substance P and high incidence of Raynaud phenomenon in patients with fibromalgia: new features for diagnosis,” Pain, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 1988.
- D. B. Cook, G. Lange, D. S. Ciccone, W. C. Liu, J. Steffener, and B. H. Natelson, “Functional imaging of pain in patients with primary fibromyalgia,” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 364–378, 2004.
- R. H. Gracely, F. Petzke, J. M. Wolf, and D. J. Clauw, “Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence of augmented pain processing in fibromyalgia,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 1333–1343, 2002.
- M. Burgmer, E. Pogatzki-Zahn, M. Gaubitz et al., “Fibromyalgia unique temporal brain activation during experimental pain: a controlled fMRI Study,” Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 123–131, 2010.
- M. Burgmer, E. Pogatzki-Zahn, M. Gaubitz, E. Wessoleck, G. Heuft, and B. Pfleiderer, “Altered brain activity during pain processing in fibromyalgia,” NeuroImage, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 502–508, 2009.
- M. Diers, C. Koeppe, P. Yilmaz et al., “Pain ratings and somatosensory evoked responses to repetitive intramuscular and intracutaneous stimulation in fibromyalgia syndrome,” Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 153–160, 2008.
- S. J. Gibson, G. O. Littlejohn, M. M. Gorman, R. D. Helme, and G. Granges, “Altered heat pain thresholds and cerebral event-related potentials following painful CO2 laser stimulation in subjects with fibromyalgia syndrome,” Pain, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 185–193, 1994.
- B. Gunduz, Y. A. Bayazit, F. Celenk et al., “Absence of contralateral suppression of transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions in fibromyalgia syndrome,” Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 122, no. 10, pp. 1047–1051, 2008.
- J. B. Hargrove, R. M. Bennett, D. G. Simons, S. J. Smith, S. Nagpal, and D. E. Deering, “Quantitative electroencephalographic abnormalities in fibromyalgia patients,” Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 132–139, 2010.
- R. E. Harris, D. J. Clauw, D. J. Scott, S. A. McLean, R. H. Gracely, and J. K. Zubieta, “Decreased central μ-opioid receptor availability in fibromyalgia,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 27, no. 37, pp. 10000–10006, 2007.
- R. E. Harris, P. C. Sundgren, A. D. Craig et al., “Elevated insular glutamate in fibromyalgia is associated with experimental pain,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 3146–3152, 2009.
- K. B. Jensen, E. Kosek, F. Petzke et al., “Evidence of dysfunctional pain inhibition in Fibromyalgia reflected in rACC during provoked pain,” Pain, vol. 144, no. 1-2, pp. 95–100, 2009.
- J. Lorenz, “Hyperalgesia or hypervigilance? An evoked potential approach to the study of fibromyalgia syndrome,” Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 19–22, 1998.
- J. Lutz, L. Jäger, D. de Quervain et al., “White and gray matter abnormalities in the brain of patients with fibromyalgia: a diffusion-tensor and volumetric imaging study,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 58, no. 12, pp. 3960–3969, 2008.
- A. Mhalla, D. C. de Andrade, S. Baudic, S. Perrot, and D. Bouhassira, “Alteration of cortical excitability in patients with fibromyalgia,” Pain, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 495–500, 2010.
- P. Montoya, C. Sitges, M. García-Herrera et al., “Reduced brain habituation to somatosensory stimulation in patients with fibromyalgia,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 1995–2003, 2006.
- J. Pujol, M. López-Solà, H. Ortiz et al., “Mapping brain response to pain in fibromyalgia patients using temporal analysis of fMRI,” PLoS One, vol. 4, no. 4, Article ID e5224, 2009.
- T. Schmidt-Wilcke, R. Luerding, T. Weigand et al., “Striatal grey matter increase in patients suffering from fibromyalgia—a voxel-based morphometry study,” Pain, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. S109–S116, 2007.
- P. C. Sundgren, M. Petrou, R. E. Harris et al., “Diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging in fibromyalgia patients: a prospective study of whole brain diffusivity, apparent diffusion coefficient, and fraction anisotropy in different regions of the brain and correlation with symptom severity,” Academic Radiology, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 839–846, 2007.
- P. B. Wood, M. F. Glabus, R. Simpson, and J. C. Patterson, “Changes in gray matter density in fibromyalgia: correlation with dopamine metabolism,” Journal of Pain, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 609–618, 2009.
- M. B. Yunus, C. S. Young, S. A. Saeed, J. M. Mountz, and J. C. Aldag, “Positron emission tomography in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome and healthy controls,” Arthritis Care and Research, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 513–518, 2004.
- H. Vaeroy, T. Sakurada, O. Forre, E. Kass, and L. Terenius, “Modulation of pain in fibromyalgia (fibrositis syndrome) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) investigation of pain related neuropeptides with special reference to calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP),” Journal of Rheumatology, vol. 16, no. 19, pp. 94–97, 1989.
- H. Cohen, L. Neumann, Y. Glazer, R. P. Ebstein, and D. Buskila, “The relationship between a common catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphism val158met and fibromyalgia,” Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. S51–S56, 2009.
- M. Jabbi, I. P. Kema, G. Van Der Pompe, G. J. Te Meerman, J. Ormel, and J. A. Den Boer, “Catechol-o-methyltransferase polymorphism and susceptibility to major depressive disorder modulates psychological stress response,” Psychiatric Genetics, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 183–193, 2007.
- S. A. McLean, D. A. Williams, P. K. Stein et al., “Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing factor concentration is associated with pain but not fatigue symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 2776–2782, 2006.
- I. Weissbecker, A. Floyd, E. Dedert, P. Salmon, and S. Sephton, “Childhood trauma and diurnal cortisol disruption in fibromyalgia syndrome,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 312–324, 2006.
- B. Hoefgen, T. G. Schulze, S. Ohlraun et al., “The power of sample size and homogenous sampling: association between the 5-HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism and major depressive disorder,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 247–251, 2005.
- D. Catley, A. T. Kaell, C. Kirschbaum, and A. A. Stone, “A naturalistic evaluation of cortisol secretion in persons with fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis,” Arthritis Care and Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 51–61, 2000.
- R. Riva, P. J. Mork, R. H. Westgaard, M. Rø, and U. Lundberg, “Fibromyalgia syndrome is associated with hypocortisolism,” International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 223–233, 2010.
- F. Tanriverdi, Z. Karaca, K. Unluhizarci, and F. Kelestimur, “The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia syndrome,” Stress, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 13–25, 2007.
- K. Wingenfeld, C. Heim, I. Schmidt, D. Wagner, G. Meinlschmidt, and D. H. Hellhammer, “HPA axis reactivity and lymphocyte glucocorticoid sensitivity in fibromyalgia syndrome and chronic pelvic pain,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 65–72, 2008.
- P. W. Gold and G. P. Chrousos, “Organization of the stress system and its dysregulation in melancholic and atypical depression: high vs low CRH/NE states,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 254–275, 2002.
- H. Selye, “A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents,” Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 230–231, 1998.