Table 2: Summary of outcomes.

Outcomes Hedges' g

Visual analogue scale for pain severity Posttreatment45.94 <.00010.90
Followup52.83 <.00010.95

MOS SF-36 physical functioning   Posttreatment13.25 <.00050.35
Followup 9.89 <.00240.28

Self-efficacy for pain management   Posttreatment10.42 <.00190.65
Followup 4.13 <.04590.40

Beck depression inventory   Posttreatment11.03<.0010.56
Followup15.70 <.00020.60

Beck anxiety inventory  Posttreatment11.79<.0010.45
Followup12.04 <.00090.62