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Pain Research and Treatment
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 951354, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/951354
Review Article

A Mechanism-Based Approach to Prevention of and Therapy for Fibromyalgia

Department of Neuroscience and Comprehensive Center for Pain Research, Colleges of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100444, 1600 S.W. Archer Road, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA

Received 15 May 2011; Accepted 6 July 2011

Academic Editor: Petra Schweinhardt

Copyright © 2012 Charles J. Vierck. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is characterized by pain referred to deep tissues. Diagnosis and treatment of FMS are complicated by a variable coexistence with regional pain, fatigue, sleep disruption, difficulty with mentation, and depression. The widespread, deep pain of FMS can be a consequence of chronic psychological stress with autonomic dysregulation. Stress acts centrally to facilitate pain and acts peripherally, via sympathetic vasoconstriction, to establish painful muscular ischemia. FMS pain, with or without a coexistent regional pain condition, is stressful, setting up a vicious circle of reciprocal interaction. Also, stress interacts reciprocally with systems of control over depression, mentation, and sleep, establishing FMS as a multiple-system disorder. Thus, stress and the ischemic pain it generates are fundamental to the multiple disorders of FMS, and a therapeutic procedure that attenuates stress and peripheral vasoconstriction should be highly beneficial for FMS. Physical exercise has been shown to counteract peripheral vasoconstriction and to attenuate stress, depression, and fatigue and improve mentation and sleep quality. Thus, exercise can interrupt the reciprocal interactions between psychological stress and each of the multiple-system disorders of FMS. The large literature supporting these conclusions indicates that exercise should be considered strongly as a first-line approach to FMS therapy.