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Pain Research and Treatment
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 981565, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/981565
Review Article

Fibromyalgia: When Distress Becomes (Un)sympathetic Pain

Rheumatology Department, National Institute of Cardiology, Juan Badiano 1, 14080 Mexico City, DF, Mexico

Received 10 April 2011; Accepted 11 June 2011

Academic Editor: Chad Boomershine

Copyright © 2012 Manuel Martinez-Lavin. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Fibromyalgia is a painful stress-related disorder. A key issue in fibromyalgia research is to investigate how distress could be converted into pain. The sympathetic nervous system is the main element of the stress response system. In animal models, physical trauma, infection, or distressing noise can induce abnormal connections between the sympathetic nervous system and the nociceptive system. Dorsal root ganglia sodium channels facilitate this type of sympathetic pain. Similar mechanisms may operate in fibromyalgia. Signs of sympathetic hyperactivity have been described in this condition. Genetic factors and/or distressful lifestyle may lead to this state of sympathetic hyperactivity. Trauma and infection are recognized fibromyalgia triggers. Women who suffer from fibromyalgia have catecholamine-evoked pain. Sympathetic dysfunction may also explain nonpain-related fibromyalgia symptoms. In conclusion, in fibromyalgia, distress could be converted into pain through forced hyperactivity of the sympathetic component of the stress response system.