Table 1: Characteristics of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) family.

Common name (gene)DistributionMembrane
Localization
FunctionPathophysiology

NHE1 (SLC9A1)UbiquitousPlasma membraneCytosolic pH, cell volume, fluid secretion, cell shape, proliferation, migrationAtaxia, seizures, ischemia, reduced parotid gland secretion, pain
NHE2 (SLC9A2)Several tissuesPlasma membraneFluid secretionLoss of acid secretion, reduced parotid gland secretion
NHE3 (SLC9A3)Kidney, intestinesPlasma membraneReabsorption of Na+ and Diarrhea, tubular proteinuria, hypertension
NHE4 (SLC9A4)Stomach
Kidney
Plasma membraneCytosolic pH,
fluid secretion
Impaired gastric acid secretion
NHE5 (SLC9A5)Brain, testis, spleen, and
skeletal muscle
Plasma membraneCytosolic pHPain
NHE6 (SLC9A6)UbiquitousEndosomesOrganellar pHX-linked mental retardation, epilepsy, ataxia
NHE7 (SLC9A7)UbiquitousEndosomesOrganellar pHUnknown
NHE8 (SLC9A8)UbiquitousEndomembranesOrganellar pHUnknown
NHE9 (SLC9A9)UbiquitousEndosomesOrganellar pHAttention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism-spectrum disorder