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Plastic Surgery International
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 782821, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/782821
Review Article

Genetics and Management of the Patient with Orofacial Cleft

Human Genome Research Center, Institute of Biosciences, University of São Paulo, 05508-090 São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Received 4 August 2012; Accepted 1 October 2012

Academic Editor: Renato Da Silva Freitas

Copyright © 2012 Luciano Abreu Brito et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cleft lip or palate (CL/P) is a common facial defect present in 1 : 700 live births and results in substantial burden to patients. There are more than 500 CL/P syndromes described, the causes of which may be single-gene mutations, chromosomopathies, and exposure to teratogens. Part of the most prevalent syndromic CL/P has known etiology. Nonsyndromic CL/P, on the other hand, is a complex disorder, whose etiology is still poorly understood. Recent genome-wide association studies have contributed to the elucidation of the genetic causes, by raising reproducible susceptibility genetic variants; their etiopathogenic roles, however, are difficult to predict, as in the case of the chromosomal region 8q24, the most corroborated locus predisposing to nonsyndromic CL/P. Knowing the genetic causes of CL/P will directly impact the genetic counseling, by estimating precise recurrence risks, and the patient management, since the patient, followup may be partially influenced by their genetic background. This paper focuses on the genetic causes of important syndromic CL/P forms (van der Woude syndrome, 22q11 deletion syndrome, and Robin sequence-associated syndromes) and depicts the recent findings in nonsyndromic CL/P research, addressing issues in the conduct of the geneticist.