Figure 2: Diagram depicting the main lociassociated with NS CL ± P in the GWAS performed by Birnbaum et al. , Grant et al. , Mangold et al. , and Beaty et al. , which mixed case-control and trios (probands and their parents) approaches. Dotted lines represent borderline associations, whereas solid lines represent significant associations at the commonly accepted GWAS threshold (). (*) Mangold et al.  found evidence of interaction between IRF6 and GREM1, a gene located in 15q13.3 region, in NS CL ± P susceptibility.