Plastic Surgery International http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Helping Hands: A Cost-Effectiveness Study of a Humanitarian Hand Surgery Mission Wed, 20 Aug 2014 07:33:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2014/921625/ Purpose. Congenital anomalies and injuries of the hand are often undertreated in low-middle income countries (LMICs). Humanitarian missions to LMICs are commonplace, but few exclusively hand surgery missions have been reported and none have attempted to demonstrate their cost-effectiveness. We present the first study evaluating the cost-effectiveness of a humanitarian hand surgery mission to Honduras as a method of reducing the global burden of surgically treatable disease. Methods. Data were collected from a hand surgery mission to San Pedro Sula, Honduras. Costs were estimated for local and volunteer services. The total burden of disease averted from patients receiving surgical reconstruction was derived using the previously described disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) system. Results. After adjusting for likelihood of disability associated with the diagnosis and likelihood of the surgery’s success, DALYs averted totaled 104.6. The total cost for the mission was $45,779 (USD). The cost per DALY averted was calculated to be $437.80 (USD), which is significantly below the accepted threshold of two times the per capita gross national income of Honduras. Conclusions. This hand surgery humanitarian mission trip to Honduras was found to be cost-effective. This model and analysis should help in guiding healthcare professionals to organize future plastic surgery humanitarian missions. Kashyap K. Tadisina, Karan Chopra, John Tangredi, J. Grant Thomson, and Devinder P. Singh Copyright © 2014 Kashyap K. Tadisina et al. All rights reserved. A Systematic Review of the Evolution of Laser Doppler Techniques in Burn Depth Assessment Thu, 07 Aug 2014 06:55:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2014/621792/ Aims. The introduction of laser Doppler (LD) techniques to assess burn depth has revolutionized the treatment of burns of indeterminate depth. This paper will systematically review studies related to these two techniques and trace their evolution. At the same time we hope to highlight current controversies and areas where further research is necessary with regard to LD imaging (LDI) techniques. Methods. A systematic search for relevant literature was carried out on PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. Key search terms included the following: “Laser Doppler imaging,” “laser Doppler flow,” and “burn depth.” Results. A total of 53 studies were identified. Twenty-six studies which met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were included in the review. Conclusions. The numerous advantages of LDI over those of LD flowmetry have resulted in the former technique superseding the latter one. Despite the presence of alternative burn depth assessment techniques, LDI remains the most favoured. Various newer LDI machines with increasingly sophisticated methods of assessing burn depth have been introduced throughout the years. However, factors such as cost effectiveness, scanning of topographically inconsistent areas of the body, and skewing of results due to tattoos, peripheral vascular disease, and anaemia continue to be sighted as obstacles to LDI which require further research. Manaf Khatib, Shehab Jabir, Edmund Fitzgerald O’Connor, and Bruce Philp Copyright © 2014 Manaf Khatib et al. All rights reserved. Risk Factors and Surgical Refinements of Postresective Mandibular Reconstruction: A Retrospective Study Wed, 06 Aug 2014 08:26:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2014/893746/ Background. Postresective mandibular reconstruction is common in cases of oral and mandibular tumors. However, complications such as infection, plate exposure, or plate fracture can occur. We identified several significant risk factors of complications after reconstructive surgery and compared the effectiveness of different surgical techniques for reducing the incidence of complications. Methods. This study is a retrospective analysis of 28 oromandibular cancer cases that required reconstructive surgery between January 1999 and December 2011 at Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine in Japan. All cases were classified using Hashikawa’s CAT and Eichner’s classification methods. Then, we determined whether these classifications and different treatment or surgical methods were significantly related to complications. Results. Complications after mandibular reconstruction occurred in 10/28 patients (36%). Specifically, five patients had plate fractures, four had plate exposures, and one had an infection. Radiation therapy and closure without any flaps were significantly related to infection or plate exposure. The wrap-around technique of securing reconstruction plates was used in 14 cases, whereas the run-through technique was used in two cases. Conclusions. The success of mandibular reconstruction depends on both mechanical and biological factors, such as the location of defects, presence of occlusions, and the amount of vascularization of the flap. Akiko Sakakibara, Kazunobu Hashikawa, Satoshi Yokoo, Shunsuke Sakakibara, Takahide Komori, and Shinya Tahara Copyright © 2014 Akiko Sakakibara et al. All rights reserved. Strategy of Surgical Management of Peripheral Neuropathy Form of Diabetic Foot Syndrome in Ghana Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:06:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2014/185023/ Introduction. Foot disorders such as ulceration, infection, and gangrene which are often due to diabetes mellitus are some major causes of morbidity and high amputation. Aim. This study aims to use a group of methods for the management of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) in order to salvage the lower limb so as to reduce the rate of high amputations of the lower extremity. Materials and Methods. A group of different advanced methods for the management of DFU such as sharp debridement of ulcers, application of vacuum therapy, and other forms of reconstructive plastic surgical procedures were used. Data collection was done at 3 different hospitals where the treatments were given. Results. Fifty-four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the current study: females (68.51%) and males (31.49%) with different stages of PEDIS classification. They underwent different methods of surgical management: debridement, vacuum therapy (some constructed from locally used materials), and skin grafting giving good and fast results. Only 4 had below knee amputations. Conclusion. Using advanced surgical wound management including reconstructive plastic surgical procedures, it was possible to reduce the rate of high amputations of the lower limb. W. M. Rdeini, P. Agbenorku, and V. A. Mitish Copyright © 2014 W. M. Rdeini et al. All rights reserved. Biologic Collagen Cylinder with Skate Flap Technique for Nipple Reconstruction Thu, 10 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2014/194087/ A surgical technique using local tissue skate flaps combined with cylinders made from a naturally derived biomaterial has been used effectively for nipple reconstruction. A retrospective review of patients who underwent nipple reconstruction using this technique was performed. Comorbidities and type of breast reconstruction were collected. Outcome evaluation included complications, surgical revisions, and nipple projection. There were 115 skate flap reconstructions performed in 83 patients between July 2009 and January 2013. Patients ranged from 32 to 73 years old. Average body mass index was 28.0. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (39.8%) and smoking (16.9%). After breast reconstruction, 68.7% of the patients underwent chemotherapy and 20.5% underwent radiation. Seventy-one patients had immediate breast reconstruction with expanders and 12 had delayed reconstruction. The only reported complications were extrusions (3.5%). Six nipples (5.2%) in 5 patients required surgical revision due to loss of projection; two patients had minor loss of projection but did not require surgical revision. Nipple projection at time of surgery ranged from 6 to 7 mm and average projection at 6 months was 3–5 mm. A surgical technique for nipple reconstruction using a skate flap with a graft material is described. Complications are infrequent and short-term projection measurements are encouraging. Brian P. Tierney, Jason P. Hodde, and Daniela I. Changkuon Copyright © 2014 Brian P. Tierney et al. All rights reserved. Outcome of Split Thickness Skin Grafting and Multiple Z-Plasties in Postburn Contractures of Groin and Perineum: A 15-Year Experience Wed, 21 May 2014 11:05:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2014/358526/ Background. Groin and perineal burn contracture is a rare postburn sequel. Such postburn contractures causes distressing symptoms to the patients and in the management of these contractures, both functional and cosmetic appearance should be the primary concern. Aims. To study the outcome of surgical treatment (STSG and multiple Z-plasties) in postburn contractures of groin and perineum. Material and Methods. We conducted a study of 49 patients, with postburn groin and perineal contractures. Release of contracture with split thickness skin grafting (STSG) was done in 44 (89.79%) patients and release of contracture and closure by multiple Z-plasties was done in 5 (10.21%) patients. Results. Satisfactory functional and cosmetic outcome was seen in 44 (89.79%) patients. Minor secondary contractures of the graft were seen in 3 (6.81%) patients who were managed by physiotherapy and partial recurrence of the contracture in 4 (8.16%) patients required secondary surgery. Conclusion. We conclude that postburn contractures of the groin and perineum can be successfully treated with release of contracture followed by STSG with satisfactory functional and cosmetic results. Long term measures like regular physiotherapy, use of pressure garments, and messaging with emollient creams should not be neglected and should be instituted postoperatively to prevent secondary contractures of the graft and recurrence of the contracture. Wani Sajad and Raashid Hamid Copyright © 2014 Wani Sajad and Raashid Hamid. All rights reserved. Acellular Dermal Matrices and Radiotherapy in Breast Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Literature Wed, 21 May 2014 08:53:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2014/472604/ The increasing use of commercially available acellular dermis matrices for postmastectomy breast reconstruction seems to have simplified the surgical procedure and enhanced the outcome. These materials, generally considered to be highly safe or with only minor contraindications due to the necessary manipulation in preparatory phases, allow an easier one-phase surgical procedure, in comparison with autologous flaps, offering a high patient satisfaction. Unfortunately, the claim for a higher rate of complications associated with irradiation at the implant site, especially when the radiation therapy was given before the reconstructive surgery, suggested a careful behaviour when this technique is preferred. However, this hypothesis was never submitted to a crucial test, and data supporting it are often discordant or incomplete. To provide a comprehensive analysis of the field, we searched and systematically reviewed papers published after year 2005 and registered clinical trials. On the basis of a meta-analysis of data, we conclude that the negative effect of the radiotherapy on the breast reconstruction seems to be evident even in the case of acellular dermis matrices aided surgery. However, more trials are needed to make solid conclusions and clarify the poor comprehension of all the factors negatively influencing outcome. Luigi Valdatta, Anna Giulia Cattaneo, Igor Pellegatta, Stefano Scamoni, Anna Minuti, and Mario Cherubino Copyright © 2014 Luigi Valdatta et al. All rights reserved. Treatment of Early-Stage Pressure Ulcers by Using Autologous Adipose Tissue Grafts Thu, 10 Apr 2014 09:33:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2014/817283/ Assessing pressure ulcers (PUs) in early stages allows patients to receive safer treatment. Up to now, in addition to clinical evaluation, ultrasonography seems to be the most suitable technique to achieve this goal. Several treatments are applied to prevent ulcer progression but none of them is totally effective. Furthermore, the in-depth knowledge of fat regenerative properties has led to a wide use of it. With this study the authors aim at introducing a new approach to cure and prevent the worsening of early-stage PUs by using fat grafts. The authors selected 42 patients who showed clinical and ultrasonographic evidence of early-stage PUs. Values of skin thickness, fascial integrity, and subcutaneous vascularity were recorded both on the PU area and the healthy trochanteric one, used as control region. Fat grafting was performed on all patients. At three months, abnormal ultrasonographic findings, such as reduction of cutaneous and subcutaneous thickness, discontinuous fascia, and decrease in subcutaneous vascularity, all were modified with respect to almost all the corresponding parameters of the control region. Results highlight that the use of fat grafts proved to be an effective treatment for early-stage PUs, especially in the care of neurological and chronic bedridden patients. Giovanni Francesco Marangi, Tiziano Pallara, Barbara Cagli, Emiliano Schena, Francesco Giurazza, Elio Faiella, Bruno Beomonte Zobel, and Paolo Persichetti Copyright © 2014 Giovanni Francesco Marangi et al. All rights reserved. Vascular Waveform Analysis of Flap-Feeding Vessels Using Color Doppler Ultrasonography Mon, 07 Apr 2014 09:42:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2014/249670/ We performed vascular waveform analysis of flap-feeding vessels using color Doppler ultrasonography and evaluated the blood flow in the flaps prior to surgery. Vascular waveform analysis was performed in 19 patients. The analyzed parameters included the vascular diameter, flow volume, flow velocity, resistance index, pulsatility index, and acceleration time. The arterial waveform was classified into 5 types based on the partially modified blood flow waveform classification reported by Hirai et al.; in particular, D-1a, D-1b, and D-2 were considered as normal waveforms. They were 4 patients which observed abnormal vascular waveform among 19 patients (D-4 : 1, D-3 : 1, and Poor detect : 2). The case which presented D-4 waveform changed the surgical procedure, and a favorable outcome was achieved. Muscle flap of the case which presented D-3 waveform was partially necrosed. The case which detected blood flow poorly was judged to be the vascular obstruction of the internal thoracic artery. In the evaluation of blood flow in flaps using color Doppler ultrasonography, determination of not only basic blood flow information, such as the vascular distribution and diameter and flow velocity, but also the flow volume, vascular resistance, and arterial waveform is essential to elucidate the hemodynamics of the flap. Akihiro Ogino and Kiyoshi Onishi Copyright © 2014 Akihiro Ogino and Kiyoshi Onishi. All rights reserved. One-Stop Outpatient Management of Accessory Auricle in Children with Titanium Clip Tue, 01 Apr 2014 09:05:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2014/780394/ Introduction. Literature on ideal management of accessory auricles is limited. Traditionally, accessory auricles are managed by paediatricians with suture ligation at the base of the accessory auricle to induce ischaemic necrosis (Mehmi et al, 2007). This method can be associated with complications and poor cosmesis thus leading to the vogue of surgical excision ( Frieden et al, 1995; Sebben, 1989). We present our experience in managing these lesions in children with the application of a titanium clip in a one-stop outpatient setting. Methods. Data was collected retrospectively through review of patient records and telephone questionnaire identifying outcomes from the parents’ perspective. Results. Of 42 patients, 24 (57.1%) responded. Eleven (26.2%) underwent surgical excision, 6 (14.3%) had no intervention, and 1 (2.4%) was not contactable. All parents were happy with the outcome and would recommend this management to other parents. Twenty-three (96%) had no complications apart from a tiny residual nubbin, which was considered cosmetically acceptable. One child had a residual nubbin that grew in size requiring surgical excision at later stage. Conclusion. Management of accessory auricles by the application of a titanium clip in one-stop outpatient setting is safe, simple, quick, and well tolerated with no need for admission, anaesthesia, or followup due to the low complication rate. Phui Yee Wong, Tereze Laing, and Catherine Milroy Copyright © 2014 Phui Yee Wong et al. All rights reserved. Funding for Postbariatric Body-Contouring (Bariplastic) Surgery in England: A Postcode Lottery Thu, 20 Mar 2014 09:32:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2014/153194/ Background. With the increase in bariatric surgery in the UK, there has been a substantial increase in patients undergoing massive weight loss (MWL) seeking postbariatric body-contouring (bariplastic) surgery. However, there is a wide variation of availability on the National Health Service (NHS). Aims. To (1) review the funding policies of Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in England for bariplastic surgery and (2) analyse the number of procedures funded in two consecutive financial years. Methods. We sent out questionnaires to all PCTs in England regarding their funding policies for bariplastic surgery and requested the number of procedures funded in 2008-09 and 2009-10. Findings. 121/147 (82%) PCTs replied to our questionnaires. 73 (60%) excluded all bariplastic procedures. 106/121 (87.6%) PCTs had referral guidelines for plastic surgery. 46/121 (38%) PCTs provided the total number of funded abdominoplasty-apronectomy (A-A) in the two financial years: total number of A-A applicants rose from 393 to 531, but approval for funding fell from 24.2% to 19.6%. Only 3 (2%) PCTs indicated increase in their future spending on bariplastic procedures in the next 5 years, with 67% planning to decrease or unsure about future funding. Conclusion. There exists a postcode lottery for bariplastic surgery in England and we feel the need for guidelines on provision of bariplastic procedures following MWL. Samrat Mukherjee, Sachin Kamat, Samuel Adegbola, and Sanjay Agrawal Copyright © 2014 Samrat Mukherjee et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Outcomes for Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Mastectomy and Reconstruction with Use of DermACELL, a Sterile, Room Temperature Acellular Dermal Matrix Tue, 11 Mar 2014 13:15:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2014/704323/ Background. Decellularized human skin has been used in a variety of medical applications, primarily involving soft tissue reconstruction, wound healing, and tendon augmentation. Theoretically, decellularization removes potentially immunogenic material and provides a clean scaffold for cellular and vascular in growth. The use of acellular dermal matrix in two-stage postmastectomy breast reconstruction is described. Methods. Ten consecutive breast cancer patients were treated with mastectomies and immediate reconstruction from August to November 2011. There were 8 bilateral and 1 unilateral mastectomies for a total of 17 breasts, with one exclusion for chronic tobacco use. Reconstruction included the use of a new 6 × 16 cm sterile, room temperature acellular dermal matrix patch (DermACELL) soaked in a cefazolin bath. Results. Of the 17 breasts, 15 reconstructions were completed; 14 of them with expander to implant sequence and acellular dermal matrix. Histological analysis of biopsies obtained during trimming of the matrix at the second stage appeared nonremarkable with evidence of normal healing, cellularity, and vascular infiltration. Conclusion. Postoperative observations showed that this cellular dermal matrix appears to be an appropriate adjunct to reconstruction with expanders. This acellular dermal matrix appeared to work well with all patients, even those receiving postoperative chemotherapy, postoperative radiation, prednisone, or warfarin sodium. Christopher Vashi Copyright © 2014 Christopher Vashi. All rights reserved. Second Generation Self-Inflating Tissue Expanders: A Two-Year Experience Thu, 23 Jan 2014 13:33:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2014/457205/ Background. Tissue expansion is a well-established surgical technique that produces an additional amount of normal skin to cover a defect. This technique is appealing because the skin quality and color are from the patient’s own. The widely used injectable expanders are of great reliability but carry the disadvantage of being painful during injection and most of the time require multiple clinic visits. So the idea of self-inflation became attractive and hydrogel expanders were developed and became widely known for being painless during clinic visit and decrease number of visits. The first generation expanders were modified by adding an enclosing plastic shell to decrease the unopposed expansion that occurred in the first generation expanders, which lead to pressure necrosis of the skin flaps. This made it an attractive option for tissue expansion in children and some adult patients. Patients, Materials, and Methods. Charts of 17 patients were retrospectively reviewed, all of them had second generation self-inflating expanders implanted over a 2-year period for one of two purposes, the treatment of giant nevi or burn scars. Results. Fifteen patients were females and 2 were males. The indication was large burn scar in 14 cases (14/17), in which 47/55 expanders were implanted, and giant nevus in 3/17 cases in which 8/55 expanders were implanted. Extrusion of the expander occurred in 8/55 expanders (14.5%), which occurred in 6/14 patients. The highest percentage of extrusion occurred in the neck in which two out of three expanders extruded; otherwise this complication does not seem to be related to the indication, gender, nor age of the patients. It seems to be that it is technical in nature. The patients did not have to get any injections to fill the tissue expanders, which made the expansion process less painful and more convenient. Conclusion. This seems to be currently the largest published review in which second generation expanders were used. Those expanders seem to offer a desirable advantage of being painless for children, also they do not require repeated visits to the surgeon’s clinic, which is of great value for patients living in the periphery. Jamal Omran Al Madani Copyright © 2014 Jamal Omran Al Madani. All rights reserved. Hypospadias Repair: A Single Centre Experience Mon, 20 Jan 2014 09:18:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2014/453039/ Objectives. To determine the demographics and analyze the management and factors influencing the postoperative complications of hypospadias repair. Settings. Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, Pakistan, from January 2007 to December 2011. Material and Methods. All male patients presenting with hypospadias irrespective of their ages were included in the study. The data were acquired from the hospital’s database and analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results. A total of 428 patients with mean age of 8.12 ± 5.04 SD presented for hypospadias repair. Midpenile hypospadias were the most common. Chordee, meatal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, and inguinal hernias were observed in 74.3%, 9.6%, 2.8%, and 2.1% cases, respectively. Two-stage (Bracka) and TIP (tubularized incised urethral plate) repairs were performed in 76.2% and 20.8% of cases, respectively. The most common complications were edema and urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF). The complications were significantly lower in the hands of specialists than residents (-value = 0.0086). The two-stage hypospadias repair resulted in higher complications frequency than single-stage repair ( value = 0.0001). Conclusion. Hypospadias surgery has a long learning curve because it requires a great deal of temperament, surgical skill and acquaintance with magnifications. Single-stage repair should be encouraged wherever applicable due to its lower postoperative complications. Mansoor Khan, Abdul Majeed, Waqas Hayat, Hidayat Ullah, Shazia Naz, Syed Asif Shah, Tahmeedullah Tahmeed, Kanwal Yousaf, and Muhammad Tahir Copyright © 2014 Mansoor Khan et al. All rights reserved. Burn Injuries Resulting from Hot Water Bottle Use: A Retrospective Review of Cases Presenting to a Regional Burns Unit in the United Kingdom Sun, 22 Dec 2013 09:29:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2013/736368/ Introduction. Hot water bottles are commonly used to relieve pain and for warmth during the colder months of the year. However, they pose a risk of serious burn injuries. The aim of this study is to retrospectively review all burn injuries caused by hot water bottles presenting to our regional burns unit. Methods. Patients with burns injuries resulting from hot water bottle use were identified from our burns database between the periods of January 2004 and March 2013 and their cases notes reviewed retrospectively. Results. Identified cases involved 39 children (aged 17 years or younger) and 46 adults (aged 18 years or older). The majority of burns were scald injuries. The mean %TBSA was 3.07% (SD ± 3.40). Seven patients (8.24%) required debridement and skin grafting while 3 (3.60%) required debridement and application of Biobrane. One patient (1.18%) required local flap reconstruction. Spontaneous rupture accounted for 48.20% of injuries while accidental spilling and contact accounted for 33% and 18.80% of injuries, respectively. The mean time to heal was 28.87 days (SD ± 21.60). Conclusions. This study highlights the typical distribution of hot water bottle burns and the high rate of spontaneous rupture of hot water bottles, which have the potential for significant burn injuries. Shehab Jabir, Quentin Frew, Naguib El-Muttardi, and Peter Dziewulski Copyright © 2013 Shehab Jabir et al. All rights reserved. Sensory Recovery with Innervated and Noninnervated Flaps after Total Lower Lip Reconstruction: A Comparative Study Thu, 05 Dec 2013 15:52:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2013/643061/ This study compares sensory recovery after total lower lip reconstruction in a wide variety of flaps including bilateral depressor anguli oris flap, submental island flap, bilateral fan flaps, radial forearm flap, and pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps in a large number of patients. Spontaneous return of flap sensation was documented by clinical testing in the majority (3%) of patients who underwent total lower lip reconstruction. Sensory recovery occurred more often in patients with fasciocutaneous free flaps than in those with musculocutaneous flaps. Flap sensation to touch, two-point discrimination, and temperature perception was correlated with age, smoking, and radiation treated patients. We conclude that reasonable sensory recovery may be expected in noninnervated flaps, provided that the major regional sensorial nerve has not been sacrificed, and also provided that the patients age is relatively young and that enough surface contact area of the recipient bed is present without marked scarring. This trial was regestered with Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (Chi CTR) with ChiCTR-ONC-13003656. Meltem Ayhan Oral, Kamuran Zeynep Sevim, Metin Görgü, and Hasan Yücel Öztan Copyright © 2013 Meltem Ayhan Oral et al. All rights reserved. Sensory Recovery Outcome after Digital Nerve Repair in Relation to Different Reconstructive Techniques: Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review Tue, 30 Jul 2013 12:55:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2013/704589/ Good clinical outcome after digital nerve repair is highly relevant for proper hand function and has a significant socioeconomic impact. However, level of evidence for competing surgical techniques is low. The aim is to summarize and compare the outcomes of digital nerve repair with different methods (end-to-end and end-to-side coaptations, nerve grafts, artificial conduit-, vein-, muscle, and muscle-in-vein reconstructions, and replantations) to provide an aid for choosing an individual technique of nerve reconstruction and to create reference values of standard repair for nonrandomized clinical studies. 87 publications including 2,997 nerve repairs were suitable for a precise evaluation. For digital nerve repairs there was practically no particular technique superior to another. Only end-to-side coaptation had an inferior two-point discrimination in comparison to end-to-end coaptation or nerve grafting. Furthermore, this meta-analysis showed that youth was associated with an improved sensory recovery outcome in patients who underwent digital replantation. For end-to-end coaptations, recent publications had significantly better sensory recovery outcomes than older ones. Given minor differences in outcome, the main criteria in choosing an adequate surgical technique should be gap length and donor site morbidity caused by graft material harvesting. Our clinical experience was used to provide a decision tree for digital nerve repair. Felix J. Paprottka, Petra Wolf, Yves Harder, Yasmin Kern, Philipp M. Paprottka, Hans-Günther Machens, and Jörn A. Lohmeyer Copyright © 2013 Felix J. Paprottka et al. All rights reserved. Complements and the Wound Healing Cascade: An Updated Review Wed, 24 Jul 2013 10:25:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2013/146764/ Wound healing is a complex pathway of regulated reactions and cellular infiltrates. The mechanisms at play have been thoroughly studied but there is much still to learn. The health care system in the USA alone spends on average 9 billion dollars annually on treating of wounds. To help reduce patient morbidity and mortality related to abnormal or prolonged skin healing, an updated review and understanding of wound healing is essential. Recent works have helped shape the multistep process in wound healing and introduced various growth factors that can augment this process. The complement cascade has been shown to have a role in inflammation and has only recently been shown to augment wound healing. In this review, we have outlined the biology of wound healing and discussed the use of growth factors and the role of complements in this intricate pathway. Hani Sinno and Satya Prakash Copyright © 2013 Hani Sinno and Satya Prakash. All rights reserved. Open Reduction Internal Fixation Poststernotomy Mediastinitis Wed, 17 Jul 2013 09:28:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2013/571685/ Introduction. Mediastinitis has been reported to complicate 5% of sternotomy surgery. We have adopted an open reduction and rigid internal fixation (ORIF) approach during the conventional rescue surgery in the treatment of mediastinitis. Methods. A retrospective review was performed to compare the outcomes of patients that had an ORIF to correct postoperative mediastinitis following median sternotomy. These were compared with the outcome of the patients that did not undergo ORIF. Results. In the 5-year study period, we reviewed 35 mediastinitis patient charts. Postoperatively, the ORIF patient group remained in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and on a ventilator for a mean of 1.5 and 0.75 days, respectively. Patients treated without ORIF spent significantly more days in the ICU (mean of 7.5 days, ) and on a ventilator (mean of 2.15 days, ). Furthermore, it was found that none of the patients (0%) who underwent ORIF complained of any postoperative sternal instability or pain. Preoperatively, however, these rates were as high as 72%. Conclusions. In the select patient, ORIF can be a safe option in the management of mediastinitis, which we have shown to significantly decrease morbidity and mortality by providing anatomic reduction as well as physiologic stabilization. We have shown that ORIF will improve the quality of life of the patient by minimizing abnormal sternal mobility and pain and will also decrease inpatient costs by decreasing days spent in the ICU and ventilator dependence. Hani Sinno and Tassos Dionisopoulos Copyright © 2013 Hani Sinno and Tassos Dionisopoulos. All rights reserved. Assessing Improvement in Quality of Life and Patient Satisfaction following Body Contouring Surgery in Patients with Massive Weight Loss: A Critical Review of Outcome Measures Employed Mon, 01 Jul 2013 09:40:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2013/515737/ Body contouring following massive weight loss is a rapidly expanding field in plastic surgery. However, healthcare payers are reluctant to fund such procedures, viewing them as purely cosmetic. This has resulted in a flurry of studies assessing quality of life (QoL) and patient satisfaction following body contouring surgery in this cohort of patients to establish an evidence base to support the idea that body contouring is as much (or even more) a functional procedure as it is cosmetic. However, the methods employed in these studies are seldom ideal, and hence the conclusions are unreliable. The gold standard to assess QoL and patient satisfaction is to use patient specific psychometrically validated patient reported outcome (PRO) measures. Developing such measures consists of a three-step process which includes a review of the current literature, qualitative patient interviews to determine what patients consider the most important, and expert opinion. This study aims to appraise the currently available literature on assessment of QoL and patient satisfaction in body contouring surgery patients. This will hopefully provide an understanding of methodological weaknesses in current studies and inform future investigators of the design of ideal instruments for assessing QoL and patient satisfaction in body contouring patients. Shehab Jabir Copyright © 2013 Shehab Jabir. All rights reserved. Philtral Columns and Nostril Shapes in Nigerian Children: A Morphometric and Aesthetic Analysis Tue, 11 Jun 2013 09:51:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2013/382754/ Background. The upper lip-nose complex contributes significantly to the concept of symmetry and proportion of the face. A study of the morphology and aesthetic preferences of the lip-nose complex will provide a database that will serve as a guide for reconstruction. Subjects and Methods. Hundred Nigerian children participated in this study. Demographic data and standard photographs of the philtral column and nostrils were obtained. Sixty volunteers were recruited to evaluate the photographs. Each volunteer was asked to rank the photographs based on their aesthetic preference. Results. The morphology of the philtral columns was classified into four groups: (1) triangular, (2) concave, (3) flat, and (4) parallel. The nostril shape was also classified into four groups: (1) triangular, (2) round, (3) teardrop, and (4) rectangular. In both genders, the triangular shape of philtral column was the most common. There are significant age differences in the aesthetic rankings of philtral columns and nostril shapes. Conclusion. Our study establishes the basal values for the morphometric and aesthetic parameters of the lip-nose complex of 5- and 6-year-old children in Nigeria. We hope our results and reconstructive surgery will intersect at a point to treat disfigurements of the philtrum and nostrils successfully. Ibrahim Abdulrasheed and Asuku Malachy Eneye Copyright © 2013 Ibrahim Abdulrasheed and Asuku Malachy Eneye. All rights reserved. Cleft Lip and Palate Treatment Sat, 25 May 2013 15:59:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2013/372751/ Nivaldo Alonso, David M. Fisher, Luiz Bermudez, and Renato da Silva Freitas Copyright © 2013 Nivaldo Alonso et al. All rights reserved. Complements C3 and C5 Individually and in Combination Increase Early Wound Strength in a Rat Model of Experimental Wound Healing Thu, 23 May 2013 15:48:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2013/243853/ Background. Complements C3 and C5 have independently been shown to augment and increase wound healing and strength. Our goal was to investigate the combinatorial effect of complements C3 and C5 on wound healing. Methods. Each rat served as its own control where topical collagen was applied to one incision and 100 nM of C3 and C5 in collagen vehicle was applied to the other incision (). To compare between systemic effects, a sham group of rats () was treated with collagen alone on one wound and saline on the other. At day 3, the tissue was examined for maximal breaking strength (MBS) and sectioned for histological examination. Results. There was a statistically significant 88% increase in MBS with the topical application of C3C5 when compared to sham wounds (). This was correlated with increased fibroblast and collagen deposition in the treated wounds. Furthermore, there appeared to be an additive hemostatic effect with the C3C5 combination. Conclusions. The combination of complements C3 and C5 as a topical application drug to skin wounds significantly increased wound healing maximum breaking strength as early as 3 days. Hani Sinno, Meenakshi Malhotra, Justyn Lutfy, Barbara Jardin, Sebastian Winocour, Fadi Brimo, Lorne Beckman, Kevin Watters, Anie Philip, Bruce Williams, and Satya Prakash Copyright © 2013 Hani Sinno et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Abdominoplasty in the Lipid Profile of Patients with Dyslipidemia Thu, 16 May 2013 11:53:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2013/861348/ Introduction. Dyslipidemia like other chronic degenerative diseases is pandemic in Latin America and around the world. A lot of patients asking for body contouring surgery can be sick without knowing it. Objective. Observe the lipid profile of patients with dyslipidemia, before and three months after an abdominoplasty. Methods. Patients candidate to an abdominoplasty without morbid obesity were followed before and three months after the surgery. We compared the lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and HOMA (cardiovascular risk marker) before and three months after the surgery. We used Student's test to compare the results. A value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results. Twenty-six patients were observed before and after the surgery. At the third month, we found only statistical differences in LDL and triglyceride values ( 0.04 and 0.03). The rest of metabolic values did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion. In this group of patients with dyslipidemia, at the third month, only LDL and triglyceride values reached statistical significances. There is no significant change in glucose, insulin, HOMA, cholesterol, VLDL, or HDL. Guillermo Ramos-Gallardo, Ana Pérez Verdin, Miguel Fuentes, Sergio Godínez Gutiérrez, Ana Rosa Ambriz-Plascencia, Ignacio González-García, Sonia Mericia Gómez-Fonseca, Rosalio Madrigal, Luis Iván González-Reynoso, Sandra Figueroa, Xavier Toscano Igartua, and Déctor Francisco Jiménez Gutierrez Copyright © 2013 Guillermo Ramos-Gallardo et al. All rights reserved. Breast Developmental Anomalies in Dormaa Municipality of Ghana: Prevalence and Impact on the Life of the Individual Tue, 19 Mar 2013 15:28:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2013/140704/ Background. Breast developmental anomalies (BDAs) are abnormalities of breast tissue that arise during breast development. Some of the anomalies can have negative impact on the person's life. This study seeks to assess the prevalence of BDA in the Dormaa Municipality in Ghana and its impact on the life of the individual. Materials and Methods. A descriptive study involving 500 female respondents aged between 11 and 25 years from selected schools in the Dormaa Municipality using self-administered questionnaires and interviews. Results. From the study, it was found that the prevalence of BDA in the municipality was 12.8%. The commonest BDA was bilateral hypoplasia which accounted for 31.3% of the BDAs found in the study. Nine (14.1%) complained of the BDA affecting their lives with most being teased in school. Twenty-two (34.4%) girls out of the 64 with BDAs had a family member with a BDA. Conclusion. BDA is a worry; therefore, comprehensive educational programs for health workers and the general public are needed to increase awareness. Also, work should be done to include education on BDA when awareness is being raised about breast cancer and on the importance of breast self-Examination (BSE). P. Agbenorku, E. Otupiri, and S. Fugar Copyright © 2013 P. Agbenorku et al. All rights reserved. Implementing the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts Tue, 12 Mar 2013 13:40:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2013/641570/ Background. High-quality clinical and genetic descriptions are crucial to improve knowledge of orofacial clefts and support specific healthcare polices. The objective of this study is to discuss the potential and perspectives of the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts. Methods. From 2008 to 2010, clinical and familial information on 370 subjects was collected by geneticists in eight different services. Data was centrally processed using an international system for case classification and coding. Results. Cleft lip with cleft palate amounted to 198 (53.5%), cleft palate to 99 (26.8%), and cleft lip to 73 (19.7%) cases. Parental consanguinity was present in 5.7% and familial history of cleft was present in 26.3% subjects. Rate of associated major plus minor defects was 48% and syndromic cases amounted to 25% of the samples. Conclusions. Overall results corroborate the literature. Adopted tools are user friendly and could be incorporated into routine patient care. The BDOC exemplifies a network for clinical and genetic research. The data may be useful to develop and improve personalized treatment, family planning, and healthcare policies. This experience should be of interest for geneticists, laboratory-based researchers, and clinicians entrusted with OC worldwide. Isabella Lopes Monlleó, Marshall Ítalo Barros Fontes, Erlane Marques Ribeiro, Josiane de Souza, Gabriela Ferraz Leal, Têmis Maria Félix, Agnes Cristina Fett-Conte, Bruna Henrique Bueno, Luis Alberto Magna, Peter Anthony Mossey, and Vera Gil-da Silva-Lopes Copyright © 2013 Isabella Lopes Monlleó et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Oral Habits in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate Wed, 27 Feb 2013 12:04:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2013/247908/ This study investigated the prevalence of oral habits in children with clefts aged three to six years, compared to a control group of children without clefts in the same age range, and compared the oral habits between children with clefts with and without palatal fistulae. The sample was composed of 110 children aged 3 to 6 years with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate and 110 children without alterations. The prevalence of oral habits and the correlation between habits and presence of fistulae (for children with clefts) were analyzed by questionnaires applied to the children caretakers. The cleft influenced the prevalence of oral habits, with lower prevalence of pacifier sucking for children with cleft lip and palate and higher prevalence for all other habits, with significant association (). There was no significant association between oral habits and presence of fistulae (). The lower prevalence of pacifier sucking and higher prevalence of other oral habits agreed with the postoperative counseling to remove the pacifier sucking habit when the child is submitted to palatoplasty, possibly representing a substitution of habits. There was no causal relationship between habits and presence of palatal fistulae. Paula Caroline Barsi, Thaieny Ribeiro da Silva, Beatriz Costa, and Gisele da Silva Dalben Copyright © 2013 Paula Caroline Barsi et al. All rights reserved. Surgical Treatment of 55 Patients with Pressure Ulcers at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Kosovo during the Period 2000–2010: A Retrospective Study Wed, 20 Feb 2013 09:21:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2013/129692/ Objective. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of PUs, the distribution of PUs, common injuries contributing to the occurrence of PUs in patients admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Kosovo for surgical interventions of PUs, localization of PUs in body, the topical treatment of pressure ulcers before surgical intervention, the methods of surgical interventions, number of surgical interventions, duration of treatment, complications, and mortality. Materials and Methods. This study includes 55 patients with PUs treated surgically in 2000–2010 period in the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Kosovo. The data were collected and analyzed from the archives and protocols of the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Data processing was done with the statistical package In Stat 3. From statistical parameters arithmetic median and standard deviation were calculated. Data testing is done with -test and the difference is significant if . Conclusion. Despite preventive measures against PUs, the incidence of Pus remains high. Shkelzen B. Duci, Hysni M. Arifi, Mimoza E. Selmani, Agon Y. Mekaj, Musli M. Gashi, Zejn A. Buja, Vildane H. Ismajli, Adem N. Kllokoqi, and Enver T. Hoxha Copyright © 2013 Shkelzen B. Duci et al. All rights reserved. Complex Biological Reconstruction after Wide Excision of Osteogenic Sarcoma in Lower Extremities Thu, 17 Jan 2013 13:56:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2013/538364/ Wide margin resection of extremity tumor sometimes leaves a huge soft tissue and bony defects in limb salvage surgery. Adequate management of these defects is an absolute requirement when aiming for functional limb. Multidisciplinary management in such cases is an answer when complex biologic reconstruction is desired. We aim to present cases of osteogenic sarcoma of lower extremity requiring combined surgical approach to achieve effective musculoskeletal reconstruction. Patients and Methods. From 2006 to 2010 ten patients were operated on for osteogenic sarcoma of lower extremity requiring complex musculoskeletal reconstruction. Results. Six patients had pathology around knee joint, whereas one each with mid tibia, mid femur, proximal femur, and heel bone. Locking compression plate was used in 7 patients including six with periarticular disease. Eight out of ten patients underwent biologic reconstruction using autograft; endoprosthetic reconstruction and hindquarter amputation were done in the remaining two patients. Vascularized fibula was done in five patients, sural artery flap which was primarily done in three patients, spare part fillet flap, free iliac crest flap, and Gastrocnemius flap was done in one patient each. Secondary hemorrhage, infection, nonunion, wound dehiscence, and flap failure were notable complications in four patients. The Average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score was 89%. Conclusion. Combined surgical approach results in cosmetically acceptable and functional limb. Kashif Abbas, Masood Umer, and Haroon ur Rashid Copyright © 2013 Kashif Abbas et al. All rights reserved. Investing in a Surgical Outcomes Auditing System Wed, 16 Jan 2013 11:57:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2013/671786/ Background. Humanitarian surgical organizations consider both quantity of patients receiving care and quality of the care provided as a measure of success. However, organizational efficacy is often judged by the percent of resources spent towards direct intervention/surgery, which may discourage investment in an outcomes monitoring system. Operation Smile's established Global Standards of Care mandate minimum patient followup and quality of care. Purpose. To determine whether investment of resources in an outcomes monitoring system is necessary and effectively measures success. Methods. This paper analyzes the quantity and completeness of data collected over the past four years and compares it against changes in personnel and resources assigned to the program. Operation Smile began investing in multiple resources to obtain the missing data necessary to potentially implement a global Surgical Outcomes Auditing System. Existing personnel resources were restructured to focus on postoperative program implementation, data acquisition and compilation, and training materials used to educate local foundation and international employees. Results. An increase in the number of postoperative forms and amount of data being submitted to headquarters occurred. Conclusions. Humanitarian surgical organizations would benefit from investment in a surgical outcomes monitoring system in order to demonstrate success and to ameliorate quality of care. Luis Bermudez, Kristen Trost, and Ruben Ayala Copyright © 2013 Luis Bermudez et al. All rights reserved.