Plastic Surgery International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Nummular Eczema of Breast: A Potential Dermatologic Complication after Mastectomy and Subsequent Breast Reconstruction Mon, 24 Aug 2015 11:10:27 +0000 Purposes. The present paper reports clinical cases where nummular eczema developed during the course of breast reconstruction by means of implantation and evaluates the occurrence patterns and ratios of this complication. Methods. 1662 patients undergoing breast reconstruction were reviewed. Patients who developed nummular eczema during the treatment were selected, and a survey was conducted on these patients regarding three items: (1) the stage of the treatment at which nummular eczema developed; (2) time required for the lesion to heal; (3) location of the lesion on the reconstructed breast(s). Furthermore, histopathological examination was conducted to elucidate the etiology of the lesion. Results. 48 patients (2.89%) developed nummular eczema. The timing of onset varied among these patients, with lesions developing after the placement of tissue expanders for 22 patients (45.8%); after the tissue expanders were replaced with silicone implants for 12 patients (25%); and after nipple-areola complex reconstruction for 14 patients (29.2%). Nummular eczema developed both in periwound regions (20 cases: 41.7%) and in nonperiwound regions (32 cases: 66.7%). Histopathological examination showed epidermal acanthosis, psoriasiform patterns, and reduction of sebaceous glands. Conclusions. Surgeons should recognize that nummular eczema is a potential complication of breast reconstruction with tissue expanders and silicone implants. Yoshiko Iwahira, Tomohisa Nagasao, Yusuke Shimizu, Kumiko Kuwata, and Yoshio Tanaka Copyright © 2015 Yoshiko Iwahira et al. All rights reserved. Free Flaps in a Resource Constrained Environment: A Five-Year Experience—Outcomes and Lessons Learned Tue, 11 Aug 2015 13:43:07 +0000 Introduction. Free flap surgery is a routine procedure in many developed countries with good surgical outcomes. In many developing countries, however, these services are not available. In this paper, we audit free flaps done in a resource constrained hospital in Kenya. Objective. This is a five-year audit of free flaps done in a tertiary hospital in Kenya, between 2009 and 2014. Materials and Methods. This was a prospective study of patients operated on with free flaps between 2009 and 2014. Results. A total of one hundred and thirty-two free flaps in one hundred and twenty patients were performed during the five-year duration. The age range was eight to seventy-two years with a mean of 47.2. All the flaps were done under loupe magnification. The overall flap success rate was eighty-nine percent. Conclusion. Despite the many limitations, free flaps in our setup were successful in the majority of patients operated on. Flap salvage was noted to be low due to infrequent flap monitoring as well as unavailability of theatre space. One therefore has to be meticulous during surgery to reduce any possibilities of reexploration. Wanjala F. Nangole, Stanley Khainga, Joyce Aswani, Loise Kahoro, and Adelaine Vilembwa Copyright © 2015 Wanjala F. Nangole et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Complications in Postbariatric Abdominoplasty: Our Experience Wed, 08 Jul 2015 09:13:31 +0000 Abdominoplasty is one of the most popular body-contouring procedures. It is associated with a significant number of complications: the most common ones are seroma, hematoma, infection, wound-healing problems, and skin flap necrosis. From January 2012 to December 2014, 25 patients (18 women and 7 men) (mean age: 51 years) underwent abdominoplastic surgery at the Plastic Surgery Section, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Parma, Italy. All patients reported a weight loss between 15 kg and 47 kg. All of the of 25 patients were included in the study; minor and major complications were seen in 17 (68%) and 8 (32%) patients, respectively. The percentage of complications in our patients was as follows: 9 patients with seroma (36%); 4 patients with wound dehiscence with delayed wound healing (16%); 3 cases with hematoma (12%); 2 patients with postoperative bleeding (8%); 1 patient (4%) with an umbilical necrosis; 1 patient (4%) with a deep vein thrombosis; 3 patients with infected seroma (12%); and 2 patients with wound infection (8%). There were no cases of postoperative mortality. The aim of this study is to analyze our complications in postbariatric abdominoplasty. Michele Grieco, Eugenio Grignaffini, Francesco Simonacci, and Edoardo Raposio Copyright © 2015 Michele Grieco et al. All rights reserved. One-Stop Clinic Utilization in Plastic Surgery: Our Local Experience and the Results of a UK-Wide National Survey Sun, 05 Jul 2015 09:55:38 +0000 Introduction. “See and treat” one-stop clinics (OSCs) are an advocated NHS initiative to modernise care, reducing cancer treatment waiting times. Little studied in plastic surgery, the existing evidence suggests that though they improve care, they are rarely implemented. We present our experience setting up a plastic surgery OSC for minor skin surgery and survey their use across the UK. Methods. The OSC was evaluated by 18-week wait target compliance, measures of departmental capacity, and patient satisfaction. Data was obtained from 32 of the 47 UK plastic surgery departments to investigate the prevalence of OSCs for minor skin cancer surgery. Results. The OSC improved 18-week waiting times, from a noncompliant mean of 80% to a compliant 95% average. Department capacity increased 15%. 95% of patients were highly satisfied with and preferred the OSC to a conventional service. Only 25% of UK plastic surgery units run OSCs, offering varying reasons for not doing so, 42% having not considered their use. Conclusions. OSCs are underutilised within UK plastic surgery, where a significant proportion of units have not even considered their benefit. This is despite associated improvements in waiting times, department capacity, and levels of high patient satisfaction. We offer our considerations and local experience instituting an OSC service. Mark Gorman, James Coelho, Sameer Gujral, and Alastair McKay Copyright © 2015 Mark Gorman et al. All rights reserved. Free Flap Transfer to Preserve Main Arterial Flow in Early Reconstruction of Open Fracture in the Lower Extremity Thu, 12 Mar 2015 12:09:01 +0000 The selection of recipient vessels is crucial when reconstructing traumatized lower extremities using a free flap. When the dorsalis pedis artery and/or posterior tibial artery cannot be palpated, we utilize computed tomography angiography to verify the site of vascular injury prior to performing free flap transfer. For vascular anastomosis, we fundamentally perform end-to-side anastomosis or flow-through anastomosis to preserve the main arterial flow. In addition, in open fracture of the lower extremity, we utilize the anterolateral thigh flap for moderate soft tissue defects and the latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap for extensive soft tissue defects. The free flaps used in these two techniques are long and include a large-caliber pedicle, and reconstruction can be performed with either the anterior or posterior tibial artery. The preparation of recipient vessels is easier during the acute phase early after injury, when there is no influence of scarring. A free flap allows flow-through anastomosis and is thus optimal for open fracture of the lower extremity that requires simultaneous reconstruction of main vessel injury and soft tissue defect from the middle to distal thirds of the lower extremity. Mitsuru Nemoto, Shinsuke Ishikawa, Natsuko Kounoike, Takayuki Sugimoto, and Akira Takeda Copyright © 2015 Mitsuru Nemoto et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Features of Primary Vein Grafts in Free Tissue Transfers Thu, 12 Mar 2015 09:19:21 +0000 The outcomes of free tissue transfers combined with vein grafts have been inconsistent, and discussions continue regarding their appropriate use. Of the 142 free tissue transfers that we performed from January 2004 to December 2011, we retrospectively analyzed 15 consecutive patients who underwent free tissue transfers in combination with vein grafts. Etiologies included trauma (8 patients), infection (4), and tumor (3). Types of free tissue transfers were fibula (4), anterolateral thigh (3), groin (3), jejunum (3), latissimus dorsi (1), and dorsal pedis (1). Vein grafts were used for the artery (6), vein (2), or both (7). The donor veins were the saphenous vein (12) and the external jugular vein (3). The mean length of the grafted veins was 10.8 cm (range: 4–18 cm). Even though complications of congestion occurred in 2 patients, these flaps survived by reexploration. The flap success rate was 15 of 15 (100%) of vein grafted free flaps versus 124 of 127 (97.6%) of free flaps not requiring vein grafts. To improve the success rate of free tissue transfers combined with vein grafts, securing healthy recipient vessels, meticulous surgical handling, a reliable vascular anastomosis technique, and strict postoperative monitoring are crucial. Mitsuru Nemoto, Kenichi Kumazawa, Eiju Uchinuma, Natsuko Kounoike, and Akira Takeda Copyright © 2015 Mitsuru Nemoto et al. All rights reserved. The Versatility of Autologous Fat Transplantation in Correction of Facial Deformities: A Single-Center Experience Tue, 03 Mar 2015 06:34:08 +0000 Deformities in the craniofacial region are of great social and functional importance. Several surgical techniques have been used to treat such pathologies often with high morbidity and lacking the ability to address smaller contour defects. The minimally invasive technique of fat transplantation has evolved rapidly within the last few decades. The objective of this paper is to present the versatility and applicability of fat transplantation in a wide range of contour deformities in the craniofacial region. We share our experiences in treating 13 patients with autoimmune disorders, congenital malformations, and acquired defects. Future perspectives of fat transplantation in the field of craniofacial reconstruction are discussed. Niels Hammer-Hansen, Javed Akram, and Tine Engberg Damsgaard Copyright © 2015 Niels Hammer-Hansen et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Intense Pulsed Light on Tissue Vascularity and Wound Healing: A Study with Mouse Island Skin Flap Model Tue, 03 Feb 2015 08:49:22 +0000 Intense pulsed light (IPL) has been used extensively in aesthetic and cosmetic dermatology. To test whether IPL could change the tissue vascularity and improve wound healing, mice were separated into 4 groups. Mice in Group I were not treated with IPL, whereas, dorsal skins of mice in Groups II, III, and IV were treated with 35 J/cm2, 25 J/cm2, and 15 J/cm2 IPL, respectively. After 2 weeks, dorsal island skin flaps were raised, based on the left deep circumflex iliac vessels as pedicles; then, survival rate was assessed. Flaps in Group IV (treated with lowest dose of IPL) have a survival rate significantly higher than other groups. Counting blood vessels did not demonstrate any significant differences; however, vessel dilation was found in this group. The results show that IPL at the therapeutic doses which are usually applied to humans is harmful to mouse dorsal skin and did not enhance wound healing, whereas, IPL at much lower dose could improve wound healing. The possible mechanism is the dilation of tissue vasculature thanks to the electromagnetic character of IPL. Another mechanism could be the heat-shock protein production. Trinh Cao Minh, Do Xuan Hai, and Pham Thi Ngoc Copyright © 2015 Trinh Cao Minh et al. All rights reserved. Combined Liposuction and Excision of Lipomas: Long-Term Evaluation of a Large Sample of Patients Wed, 28 Jan 2015 11:58:06 +0000 Background. Lipomas are benign tumors of mature fat cells. They can be removed by liposuction, yet this technique is seldom employed because of concerns that removal may be incomplete and recurrence may be more frequent than after conventional excision. Objectives. We assessed the short- and long-term clinical outcomes and recurrence of combined liposuction and limited surgical excision of subcutaneous lipomas. Methods. From 2003 to 2012, 25 patients with 48 lipomas were treated with liposuction followed by direct excision through the same incision to remove residual lipomatous tissue. Initial postoperative follow-up ranged from 1 week to 3 months, and long-term outcomes, complications, and recurrence were surveyed 1 to 10 years postoperatively. Results. Lipomas on the head, neck, trunk, and extremities ranged from 1 to 15 cm in diameter. Early postoperative hematoma and seromas were managed by aspiration. Among 23 survey respondents (92%), patients were uniformly pleased with the cosmetic results; none reported recurrent lipoma. Conclusions. The combination of liposuction and excision is a safe alternative for lipoma removal; malignancy and recurrence are uncommon. Liposuction performed through a small incision provides satisfactory aesthetic results in most cases. Once reduced in size, residual lipomatous and capsular tissue can be removed without expanding the incision. These favorable outcomes support wider application of this technique in appropriate cases. Libby R. Copeland-Halperin, Vincenza Pimpinella, and Michelle Copeland Copyright © 2015 Libby R. Copeland-Halperin et al. All rights reserved. Surgical Implications of Asymmetric Distribution of Dermal Collagen and Elastic Fibres in Two Orientations of Skin Samples from Extremities Tue, 23 Dec 2014 06:41:55 +0000 Background. Clinically, scar related complications are observed to be dissimilar in different regions of the body. Unequal distribution of dermal collagen and elastic fibres in different orientations could be one of the multifocal causes of scar related complications, for which this evaluating study has been taken up. Materials and Method. 300 skin samples collected in horizontal and vertical orientations were studied histomorphometrically. This study involved image analysis of specially stained histological section using tissue-quant software. The outcome result was termed as quantitative fraction. From the result, various ratio values were also calculated for the ratio analysis. Results. The differences in the quantitative fraction of dermal elastic content between 2 directions were statistically significant at joint areas (shoulder joint, wrist, and ankle) () but for collagen, significant difference was observed at shoulder joint and wrist only. Dermis of the forearm and thigh did not show any differences in their collagen content, but for elastic, thigh did show a significant difference while forearm had no change between 2 directions. Conclusion. Analysis of unequal content of dermal element in two directions under the perspective of wound healing consequences is subjective depending upon the anatomical position and functional status of the areas. Naveen Kumar, Pramod Kumar, Satheesha Nayak Badagabettu, Keerthana Prasad, Ranjini Kudva, and Raghuveer Coimbatore Vasudevarao Copyright © 2014 Naveen Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Abdominoplasty Improves Quality of Life, Psychological Distress, and Eating Disorder Symptoms: A Prospective Study Mon, 24 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Only some studies provide sufficient data regarding the effects of nonpostbariatric (aesthetic) abdominoplasty on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, when considering the effects on eating habits, publications are lacking. Therefore we decided to assess the effects of nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty on eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life. Materials and Methods. 64 consecutive women underwent nonpostbariatric abdominoplasty. Three outcome measures were completed: the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), Raitasalo’s modification of the Beck Depression Inventory (RBDI), and the 15D general quality of life questionnaire. Results. The mean age at baseline was 42 years and the mean body mass index (BMI) 26.4. Fifty-three (83%) women completed all the outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 5 months. A significant improvement from baseline to follow-up was noted in women’s overall quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, and self-esteem. The women were significantly less depressive and had significantly less drive for thinness as well as bulimia, and their overall risk of developing an eating disorder also decreased significantly. Conclusions. Abdominoplasty results in significantly improved quality of life, body satisfaction, effectiveness, sexual functioning, self-esteem, and mental health. The risk of developing an eating disorder is decreased significantly. This trial is registered with NCT02151799. Kai M. M. Saariniemi, Asko M. Salmi, Hilkka H. Peltoniemi, Marjo H. Helle, Pia Charpentier, and Hannu O. M. Kuokkanen Copyright © 2014 Kai M. M. Saariniemi et al. All rights reserved. Versatility of Pedicled Tensor Fascia Lata Flap: A Useful and Reliable Technique for Reconstruction of Different Anatomical Districts Tue, 18 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Aims and Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the versatility of pedicled tensor fascia lata flap for reconstruction of various anatomical regions. Materials and Methods. In this retrospective study a total of 34 patients with defects over various anatomical regions were included. The defects were located over the trochanter , groin , perineum , lower anterior abdomen , gluteal region , and ischial region . The etiology of defects included trauma , infection , pressure sores , and malignancy . Reconstruction was performed using pedicled tensor fascia lata flaps. Patients were evaluated in terms of viability of the flap and donor site morbidity. The technical details of the operative procedure have also been outlined. Results. All the flaps survived well except 5 patients in which minor complications were noted and 1 who experienced complete flap loss. Of those with minor complications, 1 patient developed distal marginal necrosis and 1 developed infection which subsided within three days by dressings and antibiotics and in 2 patients partial loss of the skin graft occurred at the donor site out of which 1 required regrafting and another one healed completely with dressing and antibiotics. All the patients were followed up for an average period of 6 months, ranging from 1 to 12 months. Donor site morbidity was minimal. Conclusion. It was concluded that the pedicled tensor fascia lata flap is a versatile, reliable, easy, and less time consuming procedure for the coverage of defects around trochanter, groin, lower anterior abdomen, perineum, and ischial region. Md. Sohaib Akhtar, Mohd Fahud Khurram, and Arshad Hafeez Khan Copyright © 2014 Md. Sohaib Akhtar et al. All rights reserved. Catastrophic Outcomes in Free Tissue Transfer: A Six-Year Review of the NSQIP Database Sun, 16 Nov 2014 13:07:47 +0000 Background. No studies report robust data on the national incidence and risk factors associated with catastrophic medical outcomes following free tissue transfer. Methods. The American College of Surgeons (ACS) multicenter, prospective National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was used to identify patients who underwent free tissue transfer between 2006 and 2011. Multivariable logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. Results. Over the 6-year study period 2,349 patients in the NSQIP database underwent a free tissue transfer procedure. One hundred and twenty-two patients had at least one catastrophic medical outcome (5.2%). These 122 patients had 151 catastrophic medical outcomes, including 93 postoperative respiratory failure events (4.0%), 14 pulmonary emboli (0.6%), 13 septic shock events (0.5%), 12 myocardial infarctions (0.5%), 6 cardiac arrests (0.3%), 4 strokes (0.2%), 1 coma (0.0%), and 8 deaths (0.3%). Total length of hospital stay was on average 14.7 days longer for patients who suffered a catastrophic medical complication (). Independent risk factors were identified. Conclusions. Free tissue transfer is a proven and safe technique. Catastrophic medical complications were infrequent but added significantly to length of hospital stay and patient morbidity. David W. Grant, Alexei Mlodinow, Jon P. Ver Halen, and John Y. S. Kim Copyright © 2014 David W. Grant et al. All rights reserved. Aesthetic and Functional Outcomes of the Innervated and Thinned Anterolateral Thigh Flap in Reconstruction of Upper Limb Defects Sun, 16 Nov 2014 06:40:45 +0000 Background. The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap has been widely described in reconstruction of the upper extremity. However, some details require refinement to improve both functional and aesthetic results. Methods. After reconstruction of upper extremity defects using thinned and innervated ALT flaps, functional and aesthetic outcomes were evaluated with the QuickDASH scale and a Likert scale for aesthetic assessment of free flaps, respectively. Results. Seven patients with a mean follow-up of 11.57 months and average flap thickness of 5 mm underwent innervation by an end-to-end neurorrhaphy. The average percentage of disability (QuickDASH) was 21.88% with tenderness, pain, temperature, and two-point discrimination present in 100% of cases, and the aesthetic result gave an overall result of 15.40 (good) with the best scores in color and texture. Conclusions. Simultaneous thinning and innervation of the ALT flap lead to a good cosmetic result and functional outcome with a low percentage of disability, which could result in minor surgical procedures and better recovery of motor and sensory function. Level of Evidence. IV. Carlos Alberto Torres-Ortíz Zermeño and Javier López Mendoza Copyright © 2014 Carlos Alberto Torres-Ortíz Zermeño and Javier López Mendoza. All rights reserved. Skin Sparing Mastectomy with Preservation of Nipple Areola Complex and Immediate Breast Reconstruction in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Single Centre Prospective Study Tue, 11 Nov 2014 11:55:11 +0000 Background. Skin and nipple areola sparing mastectomy (NASM) has recently gained popularity as the management of breast cancer. This study aims to evaluate the aesthetic outcome, patient satisfaction, and oncological safety of NASM. Methods. The study prospectively analyzes the results of NASM and immediate breast reconstruction in 34 women with breast cancer. The criteria for inclusion were core biopsy-proven, peripherally located breast cancer of any tumor size and with any “N” status, with documented negative intraoperative frozen section biopsy of retroareolar tissue, and distance from the nipple to tumor margin >2 cm on mammography. Results. The median age of the patients was 45 years. The majority had either stage II or stage III breast cancer. The median mammographic distance of tumor from nipple areola complex (NAC) was 3.8 cm. The overall operative morbidity was minimal. The NAC could be preserved in all the patients. There was no local recurrence of tumor at median follow-up of 28.5 months. The aesthetic outcomes were satisfactory. Conclusion. NASM and immediate breast reconstruction can be successfully achieved with minimal morbidity and very low risk of local recurrence in appropriately selected breast cancer patients, with acceptable aesthetic results and good patient satisfaction. Debarati Chattopadhyay, Souradip Gupta, Prabir Kumar Jash, Marang Buru Murmu, and Sandipan Gupta Copyright © 2014 Debarati Chattopadhyay et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment on Deep Partial-Thickness Burn Injury in Rats: A Pilot Study Thu, 06 Nov 2014 13:37:37 +0000 Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) enhances tissue vascularization and neoangiogenesis. Recent animal studies showed improved soft tissue regeneration using ESWT. In most cases, deep partial-thickness burns require skin grafting; the outcome is often unsatisfactory in function and aesthetic appearance. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of ESWT on skin regeneration after deep partial-thickness burns. Under general anesthesia, two standardized deep partial-thickness burns were induced on the back of 30 male Wistar rats. Immediately after the burn, ESWT was given to rats of group 1 (), but not to group 2 (). On days 5, 10, and 15, five rats of each group were analyzed. Reepithelialization rate was defined, perfusion units were measured, and histological analysis was performed. Digital photography was used for visual documentation. A wound score system was used. ESWT enhanced the percentage of wound closure in group 1 as compared to group 2 (). The reepithelialization rate was improved significantly on day 15 (). The wound score showed a significant increase in the ESWT group. ESWT improves skin regeneration of deep partial-thickness burns in rats. It may be a suitable and cost effective treatment alternative in this type of burn wounds in the future. Gabriel Djedovic, Florian Stefan Kamelger, Johannes Jeschke, and Hildegunde Piza-Katzer Copyright © 2014 Gabriel Djedovic et al. All rights reserved. Palliative Reconstructive Surgery: Contextualizing Palliation in Resource-Poor Settings Thu, 30 Oct 2014 10:15:05 +0000 Introduction. Palliative care in Kenya and the larger Sub-Saharan Africa is considered a preserve of hospices, where these exist. Surgical training does not arm the surgeon with the skills needed to deal with the care of palliative patients. Resource constraints demand that the surgeon be multidiscipline trained so as to be able to adequately address the needs of a growing population of patients that could benefit from surgical palliation. Patients and Methods. The author describes his experience in the management of a series of 31 palliative care patients, aged 8 to 82 years. There were a total of nine known or presumed mortalities in the first year following surgery; 17 patients experienced an improved quality of life for at least 6 months after surgery. Fourteen of these were disease-free at 6 months. Conclusion. Palliative reconstructive surgery is indicated in a select number of patients. Although cure is not the primary intent of palliative surgery, the potential benefits of an improved quality of life and the possibility of cure should encourage a more proactive role for the surgeon. The need for palliative care can be expected to increase significantly in Africa, with the estimated fourfold increase of cancer patients over the next 50 years. Peter M. Nthumba Copyright © 2014 Peter M. Nthumba. All rights reserved. Use of Vein Conduit and Isolated Nerve Graft in Peripheral Nerve Repair: A Comparative Study Mon, 27 Oct 2014 09:02:52 +0000 Aims and Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vein conduit in nerve repair compared with isolated nerve graft. Materials and Methods. This retrospective study was conducted at author’s centre and included a total of 40 patients. All the patients had nerve defect of more than 3 cm and underwent nerve repair using nerve graft from sural nerve. In 20 cases, vein conduit (study group) was used whereas no conduit was used in other 20 cases. Patients were followed up for 2 years at the intervals of 3 months. Results. Patients had varying degree of recovery. Sensations reached to all the digits at 1 year in study groups compared to 18 months in control group. At the end of second year, 84% patients of the study group achieved 2-point discrimination of <10 mm compared to 60% only in control group. In terms of motor recovery, 82% patients achieved satisfactory hand function in study group compared to 56% in control group . Conclusions. It was concluded that the use of vein conduit in peripheral nerve repair is more effective method than isolated nerve graft providing good sensory and motor recovery. Imran Ahmad and Md. Sohaib Akhtar Copyright © 2014 Imran Ahmad and Md. Sohaib Akhtar. All rights reserved. Venous Thromboembolism following Elective Aesthetic Plastic Surgery: A Longitudinal Prospective Study in 1254 Patients Thu, 09 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a disorder with short-term mortality and long-term morbidity. Healthy patients submitted to elective aesthetic plastic surgeries (EAPS) have risk factors to develop VTE not well established yet. The objective of this study was to examine the incidence and risk factors for VTE in these patients. Methods. Longitudinal, prospective (minimum follow-up of 3 months), observational study. Comprehensive information on patient characteristics and surgeries performed was obtained. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative risk factors were analyzed for their association with VTE. Results. A total of 1254 patients were included in the study. Postoperative VTE occurred in 17 (1,35%) of patients. VTE was more frequent in patients more than 40 years old (82.3%). Smoking, patients with 2 or 3 pregnancies, and hormone replacement therapy, and oral contraceptives use presents higher levels of VTE. In this study we have not found any correlation between liposuction, augmentation mammoplasty, mastopexy, and rhinoplasty as an isolated risk factor for VTE. Conclusions. The incidence of VTE in patients undergoing EAPS was 1.35%. Patients with more than 40 years of age, tobacco users, patients with 2 or more pregnancies, and hormone replacement therapy or oral contraceptives use presents higher levels of VTE. Denis Souto Valente, Lauro Aita Carvalho, Rafaela Koehler Zanella, and Sibelie Valente Copyright © 2014 Denis Souto Valente et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Different Topical Agents (Silver Sulfadiazine, Povidone-Iodine, and Sodium Chloride 0.9%) on Burn Injuries in Rats Mon, 29 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 It was aimed to comparatively evaluate the effects of dressing methods with silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and saline which have a common use in routine practices for burn injuries. Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley adult female rats were used in this study. All the rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group, the povidone-iodine group, the saline group, and the silver sulfadiazine group. On each rat, a second degree burn which covered less than 10% of the body surface area was created under general anesthesia by a metal comb including four probes with 2 × 1 cm area. The control group did not have any treatment during the experiment. Povidone-iodine, saline, and silver sulfadiazine administrations were performed under ether anesthesia every day. On 0, 7th, 14th, and 21st days of the study, tissue samples were taken for histological analyses. The sections taken from the paraffin blocks were stained and avidin-biotin-peroxidase method was used for collagen immune-reactivity. In the light microscope analyses, number of inflammatory cells, vascularization, fibroblast proliferation, collagen formation and epithelialization were evaluated histologically in all groups and analysed statistically. The agents that we used for injury healing in the treatment groups did not show any significant better results in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, further studies with the use of sodium chloride, silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine by creating deeper and/or larger burn injury models are needed in order to accept these agents in routine treatment. Emir Burak Yüksel, Alpagan Mustafa Yıldırım, Ali Bal, and Tuncay Kuloglu Copyright © 2014 Emir Burak Yüksel et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Use of Auricular Composite Graft for Secondary Unilateral Cleft Lip Nasal Alar Deformity Repair Thu, 25 Sep 2014 09:09:17 +0000 The purpose of this study is to evaluate the surgical outcome after using composite grafts for secondary cleft lip nasal deformities. A retrospective cohort study of one surgeon’s outcome of 35 consecutive performed secondary cleft lip nasal deformity repair. Thirty-five patients with secondary nose deformity related to unsatisfactory cleft lip repair were operated using the proposed surgical technique since 2008. All these patients met the study criterion of having anthropometric measurements performed at least one year postoperatively. Measurement of nostril size was performed at the right and left side of the nose, preoperatively and at least one year postoperatively. The study found statistically significant differences between the preoperatory and postoperatory nose measurements. In addition, we have not found statistically significant differences between the cleft and noncleft nostril sizes measured at least one year postoperatively. The findings suggest that the proposed technique is a good alternative to address secondary nose deformity related to cleft lip primary repair. Percy Rossell-Perry and Carolina Romero-Narvaez Copyright © 2014 Percy Rossell-Perry and Carolina Romero-Narvaez. All rights reserved. FAMM Flap in Reconstructing Postsurgical Nasopharyngeal Airway Stenosis Sun, 21 Sep 2014 09:04:37 +0000 Introduction. Postsurgical nasopharyngeal airway stenosis can be a challenge to manage. The stenosis could be as a result of any surgical procedure in the nasopharyngeal region that heals extensive scarring and fibrosis. Objective. To evaluate patients with nasopharyngeal stenosis managed with FAMM flap. Study Design. Prospective study of patients with nasopharyngeal stenosis at the Kenyatta National Hospital between 2010 and 2013 managed with FAMM flap. Materials and Methods. Patients with severe nasopharyngeal airway stenosis were reviewed and managed with FAMM flaps at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Postoperatively they were assessed for symptomatic improvement in respiratory distress, patency of the nasopharyngeal airway, and donor site morbidity. Results. A total of 8 patients were managed by the authors in a duration of 4 years with nasopharyngeal stenosis. Five patients were managed with unilateral FAMM flaps in a two-staged surgical procedure. Four patients had complete relieve of the airway obstruction with a patent airway created. One patient had a patent airway created though with only mild improvement in airway obstruction. Conclusion. FAMM flap provides an alternative in the management of postsurgical severe nasopharyngeal stenosis. It is a reliable flap that is easy to raise and could provide adequate epithelium for the stenosed pharynx. Ferdinand Wanjala Nangole and Stanley Ominde Khainga Copyright © 2014 Ferdinand Wanjala Nangole and Stanley Ominde Khainga. All rights reserved. Augmentation Rhinoplasty in Cleft Lip Nasal Deformity: Preliminary Patients’ Perspective Mon, 01 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The correction of cleft lip nasal deformity is challenging and there have been numerous methods described in the literature with little demonstrated technical superiority of one over another. The common clinical issues associated with cleft lip nasal deformity are its lack of symmetry, alar collapse on the affected side, obtuse nasal labial angle, short nasal length, loss of tip definition, and altered columella show among others. We carried out augmentation of cleft lip rhinoplasties with rib graft in 16 patients over the one-year study period. Each of these patients was reviewed and given questionnaire before and after surgery to evaluate their response on the outcome to the approach. Preoperatively, nasal asymmetry is the main complaint (, 87.5%) among our series of patients. Postoperatively, 12 (75%) patients out of the 16 reported significant improvement in their nasal symmetry with the other four marginal. All patients reported excellent nasal projection postoperatively with good nasal tip definition. Our series of patients reported overall good satisfaction outcome and will recommend this procedure to other patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. In conclusion, augmentation of cleft lip rhinoplasty can be employed to achieve perceivable and satisfactory outcome in patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. William H. C. Tiong, Mohd Ali Mat Zain, and Normala Hj Basiron Copyright © 2014 William H. C. Tiong et al. All rights reserved. The Effectiveness of Modified Cottle Maneuver in Predicting Outcomes in Functional Rhinoplasty Mon, 25 Aug 2014 05:49:18 +0000 Objective. To assess the outcomes of functional rhinoplasty for nasal valve incompetence and to evaluate an in-office test used to select appropriate surgical techniques. Methods. Patients with nasal obstruction due to nasal valve incompetence were enrolled. The modified Cottle maneuver was used to assess the internal and external nasal valves to help select the appropriate surgical method. The rhinoplasty outcomes evaluation (ROE) form and a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) of nasal breathing were used to compare preoperative and postoperative symptoms. Results. Forty-nine patients underwent functional rhinoplasty evaluation. Of those, 35 isolated batten or spreader grafts were inserted without additional procedures. Overall mean ROE score increased significantly () from 41.9 ± 2.4 to 81.7 ± 2.5 after surgery. Subjective improvement in nasal breathing was also observed with the VAS (mean improvement of 4.5 (95% CI 3.8–5.2) from baseline ()). Spearman rank correlation between predicted outcomes using the modified Cottle maneuver and postoperative outcomes was strong for the internal nasal valve (Rho = 0.80; ) and moderate for the external nasal valve (Rho = 0.50; ). Conclusion. Functional rhinoplasty improved subjective nasal airflow in our population. The modified Cottle maneuver was effective in predicting positive surgical outcomes. Elaine Fung, Paul Hong, Corey Moore, and S. Mark Taylor Copyright © 2014 Elaine Fung et al. All rights reserved. Aesthetic Surgery Training during Residency in the United States: A Comparison of the Integrated, Combined, and Independent Training Models Sun, 24 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Three educational models for plastic surgery training exist in the United States, the integrated, combined, and independent model. The present study is a comparative analysis of aesthetic surgery training, to assess whether one model is particularly suitable to provide for high-quality training in aesthetic surgery. Methods. An 18-item online survey was developed to assess residents’ perceptions regarding the quality of training in aesthetic surgery in the US. The survey had three distinct sections: demographic information, current state of aesthetic surgery training, and residents’ perception regarding the quality of aesthetic surgery training. Results. A total of 86 senior plastic surgery residents completed the survey. Twenty-three, 24, and 39 residents were in integrated, combined, and independent residency programs, respectively. No statistically significant differences were seen with respect to number of aesthetic surgery procedures performed, additional training received in minimal-invasive cosmetic procedures, median level of confidence with index cosmetic surgery procedures, or perceived quality of aesthetic surgery training. Facial aesthetic procedures were felt to be the most challenging procedures. Exposure to minimally invasive aesthetic procedures was limited. Conclusion. While the educational experience in aesthetic surgery appears to be similar, weaknesses still exist with respect to training in minimally invasive/nonsurgical aesthetic procedures. Arash Momeni, Rebecca Y. Kim, Derrick C. Wan, Ali Izadpanah, and Gordon K. Lee Copyright © 2014 Arash Momeni et al. All rights reserved. Helping Hands: A Cost-Effectiveness Study of a Humanitarian Hand Surgery Mission Wed, 20 Aug 2014 07:33:56 +0000 Purpose. Congenital anomalies and injuries of the hand are often undertreated in low-middle income countries (LMICs). Humanitarian missions to LMICs are commonplace, but few exclusively hand surgery missions have been reported and none have attempted to demonstrate their cost-effectiveness. We present the first study evaluating the cost-effectiveness of a humanitarian hand surgery mission to Honduras as a method of reducing the global burden of surgically treatable disease. Methods. Data were collected from a hand surgery mission to San Pedro Sula, Honduras. Costs were estimated for local and volunteer services. The total burden of disease averted from patients receiving surgical reconstruction was derived using the previously described disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) system. Results. After adjusting for likelihood of disability associated with the diagnosis and likelihood of the surgery’s success, DALYs averted totaled 104.6. The total cost for the mission was $45,779 (USD). The cost per DALY averted was calculated to be $437.80 (USD), which is significantly below the accepted threshold of two times the per capita gross national income of Honduras. Conclusions. This hand surgery humanitarian mission trip to Honduras was found to be cost-effective. This model and analysis should help in guiding healthcare professionals to organize future plastic surgery humanitarian missions. Kashyap K. Tadisina, Karan Chopra, John Tangredi, J. Grant Thomson, and Devinder P. Singh Copyright © 2014 Kashyap K. Tadisina et al. All rights reserved. A Systematic Review of the Evolution of Laser Doppler Techniques in Burn Depth Assessment Thu, 07 Aug 2014 06:55:29 +0000 Aims. The introduction of laser Doppler (LD) techniques to assess burn depth has revolutionized the treatment of burns of indeterminate depth. This paper will systematically review studies related to these two techniques and trace their evolution. At the same time we hope to highlight current controversies and areas where further research is necessary with regard to LD imaging (LDI) techniques. Methods. A systematic search for relevant literature was carried out on PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. Key search terms included the following: “Laser Doppler imaging,” “laser Doppler flow,” and “burn depth.” Results. A total of 53 studies were identified. Twenty-six studies which met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were included in the review. Conclusions. The numerous advantages of LDI over those of LD flowmetry have resulted in the former technique superseding the latter one. Despite the presence of alternative burn depth assessment techniques, LDI remains the most favoured. Various newer LDI machines with increasingly sophisticated methods of assessing burn depth have been introduced throughout the years. However, factors such as cost effectiveness, scanning of topographically inconsistent areas of the body, and skewing of results due to tattoos, peripheral vascular disease, and anaemia continue to be sighted as obstacles to LDI which require further research. Manaf Khatib, Shehab Jabir, Edmund Fitzgerald O’Connor, and Bruce Philp Copyright © 2014 Manaf Khatib et al. All rights reserved. Risk Factors and Surgical Refinements of Postresective Mandibular Reconstruction: A Retrospective Study Wed, 06 Aug 2014 08:26:37 +0000 Background. Postresective mandibular reconstruction is common in cases of oral and mandibular tumors. However, complications such as infection, plate exposure, or plate fracture can occur. We identified several significant risk factors of complications after reconstructive surgery and compared the effectiveness of different surgical techniques for reducing the incidence of complications. Methods. This study is a retrospective analysis of 28 oromandibular cancer cases that required reconstructive surgery between January 1999 and December 2011 at Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine in Japan. All cases were classified using Hashikawa’s CAT and Eichner’s classification methods. Then, we determined whether these classifications and different treatment or surgical methods were significantly related to complications. Results. Complications after mandibular reconstruction occurred in 10/28 patients (36%). Specifically, five patients had plate fractures, four had plate exposures, and one had an infection. Radiation therapy and closure without any flaps were significantly related to infection or plate exposure. The wrap-around technique of securing reconstruction plates was used in 14 cases, whereas the run-through technique was used in two cases. Conclusions. The success of mandibular reconstruction depends on both mechanical and biological factors, such as the location of defects, presence of occlusions, and the amount of vascularization of the flap. Akiko Sakakibara, Kazunobu Hashikawa, Satoshi Yokoo, Shunsuke Sakakibara, Takahide Komori, and Shinya Tahara Copyright © 2014 Akiko Sakakibara et al. All rights reserved. Strategy of Surgical Management of Peripheral Neuropathy Form of Diabetic Foot Syndrome in Ghana Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:06:29 +0000 Introduction. Foot disorders such as ulceration, infection, and gangrene which are often due to diabetes mellitus are some major causes of morbidity and high amputation. Aim. This study aims to use a group of methods for the management of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) in order to salvage the lower limb so as to reduce the rate of high amputations of the lower extremity. Materials and Methods. A group of different advanced methods for the management of DFU such as sharp debridement of ulcers, application of vacuum therapy, and other forms of reconstructive plastic surgical procedures were used. Data collection was done at 3 different hospitals where the treatments were given. Results. Fifty-four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the current study: females (68.51%) and males (31.49%) with different stages of PEDIS classification. They underwent different methods of surgical management: debridement, vacuum therapy (some constructed from locally used materials), and skin grafting giving good and fast results. Only 4 had below knee amputations. Conclusion. Using advanced surgical wound management including reconstructive plastic surgical procedures, it was possible to reduce the rate of high amputations of the lower limb. W. M. Rdeini, P. Agbenorku, and V. A. Mitish Copyright © 2014 W. M. Rdeini et al. All rights reserved. Biologic Collagen Cylinder with Skate Flap Technique for Nipple Reconstruction Thu, 10 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A surgical technique using local tissue skate flaps combined with cylinders made from a naturally derived biomaterial has been used effectively for nipple reconstruction. A retrospective review of patients who underwent nipple reconstruction using this technique was performed. Comorbidities and type of breast reconstruction were collected. Outcome evaluation included complications, surgical revisions, and nipple projection. There were 115 skate flap reconstructions performed in 83 patients between July 2009 and January 2013. Patients ranged from 32 to 73 years old. Average body mass index was 28.0. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (39.8%) and smoking (16.9%). After breast reconstruction, 68.7% of the patients underwent chemotherapy and 20.5% underwent radiation. Seventy-one patients had immediate breast reconstruction with expanders and 12 had delayed reconstruction. The only reported complications were extrusions (3.5%). Six nipples (5.2%) in 5 patients required surgical revision due to loss of projection; two patients had minor loss of projection but did not require surgical revision. Nipple projection at time of surgery ranged from 6 to 7 mm and average projection at 6 months was 3–5 mm. A surgical technique for nipple reconstruction using a skate flap with a graft material is described. Complications are infrequent and short-term projection measurements are encouraging. Brian P. Tierney, Jason P. Hodde, and Daniela I. Changkuon Copyright © 2014 Brian P. Tierney et al. All rights reserved.