About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Psyche
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 872736, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/872736
Research Article

Patch Departure Behavior of Bumble Bees: Rules and Mechanisms

Yupparaj Wittayarlai, Amper Muang, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand

Received 1 August 2009; Accepted 6 February 2010

Academic Editor: Koos (J. C.) Biesmeijer

Copyright © 2010 Dale E. Taneyhill. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Chittka, J. D. Thomson, and N. M. Waser, “Flower constancy, insect psychology, and plant evolution,” Naturwissenschaften, vol. 86, no. 8, pp. 361–377, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. L. Charnov, “Optimal foraging, the marginal value theorem,” Theoretical Population Biology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 129–136, 1976. View at Scopus
  3. R. F. Green, “Stopping rules for optimal foragers,” American Naturalist, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 30–43, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. I. A. Todd and A. Kacelnik, “Psychological mechanisms and the marginal value theorem: dynamics of scalar memory for travel time,” Animal Behaviour, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 765–775, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Oaten, “Optimal foraging in patches: a case for stochasticity,” Theoretical Population Biology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 263–285, 1977. View at Scopus
  6. J. M. McNamara, “Optimal patch use in a stochastic environment,” Theoretical Population Biology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 269–288, 1982. View at Scopus
  7. Y. Iwasa, M. Higashi, and M. Yamamura, “Prey distribution as a factor determining the choice of optimal foraging strategy,” American Naturalist, vol. 117, pp. 710–723, 1981.
  8. J. N. McNair, “Optimal giving-up times and the marginal value theorem,” American Naturalist, vol. 119, no. 4, pp. 511–529, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. F. Green, “A simpler, more general method for finding the optimal foraging strategy for Bayesian birds,” Oikos, vol. 112, pp. 274–284, 2006.
  10. O. Olsson, “Bayesian foraging with only two patch types,” Oikos, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 285–297, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. M. McNamara, R. F. Green, and O. Olsson, “Bayes' theorem and its applications in animal behavior,” Oikos, vol. 112, pp. 243–251, 2006.
  12. D. W. Stephens and J. R. Krebs, Foraging Theory, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 1986.
  13. J. K. Waage, “Foraging for patchily distributed hosts by the parasitoid Nemeritis canescens,” Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 353–371, 1979.
  14. D. E. Taneyhill, Evolution of complex foraging behavior in bumble bees, Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook, New York, NY, USA, 1994.
  15. D. Lefebvre, J. Pierre, Y. Outreman, and J.-S. Pierre, “Patch departure rules in bumblebees: evidence of a decremental motivational mechanism,” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, vol. 61, no. 11, pp. 1707–1715, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. M. Biernaskie, S. C. Walker, and R. J. Gegear, “Bumblebees learn to forage like bayesians,” American Naturalist, vol. 174, no. 3, pp. 413–423, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. K. D. Waddington and L. Holden, “Optimal foraging: on flower selection by bees,” American Naturalist, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 179–196, 1979.
  18. D. W. Stephens, J. F. Lynch, A. E. Sorensen, and C. Gordon, “Preference and profitability: theory and experiment,” American Naturalist, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 533–553, 1986. View at Scopus
  19. G. H. Pyke, “Optimal foraging in bumblebees: rule of movement between flowers within inflorescences,” Animal Behaviour, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 1167–1181, 1979. View at Scopus
  20. L. S. Best and P. Bierzychudek, “Pollinator foraging on foxglove (Digitalis purpurea): a test of a new model,” Evolution, vol. 36, pp. 70–79, 1982.
  21. S. A. Corbet, I. Cuthill, M. Fallows, and T. Harrison, “Why do nectar-foraging bees and wasps work upwards on inflorescences?” Oecologia, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 79–83, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. Pyke, “Optimal foraging in bumblebees: rule of departure from an inflorescence,” Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 60, pp. 417–428, 1981.
  23. K. D. Waddington and B. Heinrich, “The foraging movements of bumblebees on vertical “inflorescences”: an experimental analysis,” Journal of Comparative Physiology, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 113–117, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. M. Hodges, “Bumble bee foraging: the threshold departure rule,” Ecology, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 179–187, 1985. View at Scopus
  25. J. M. Pleasants, “Optimal foraging by nectarivores: a test of the marginal-value theorem,” American Naturalist, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 51–71, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. E. Cresswell, “How and why do nectar-foraging bumblebees initiate movements between inflorescences of wild bergamot Monarda fistulosa (Lamiaceae)?” Oecologia, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 450–460, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. Kadmon and A. Shmida, “Departure rules used by bees foraging for nectar: a field test,” Evolutionary Ecology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 142–151, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. C. Stout and D. Goulson, “The influence of nectar secretion rates on the responses of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) to previously visited flowers,” Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 239–246, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Lunau, “Innate flower recognition in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris, B. lucorum Apidae): optical signals from stamens as landing reaction releasers,” Ethology, vol. 88, pp. 203–214, 1991.
  30. J. Spaethe and L. Chittka, “Interindividual variation of eye optics and single object resolution in bumblebees,” Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 206, no. 19, pp. 3447–3453, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. J. G. Ollason, “Learning to forage—optimally?” Theoretical Population Biology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 44–56, 1980.
  32. J. D. Thomson, R. C. Plowright, and W. P. Maddison, “Behavior of bumble bee pollinators of Aralia hispida Vent. (Araliaceae),” Oecologia, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 326–336, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. D. E. Taneyhill and J. D. Thomson, “Behavior of inexperienced bumble bees toward spatial clumping of nectar,” Entomologia Generalis, vol. 29, no. 2-4, pp. 149–164, 2007.
  34. M. Bateson and A. Kacelnik, “Accuracy of memory for amount in the foraging starling, Sturnus vulgaris,” Animal Behaviour, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 431–443, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. M. Bateson and A. Kacelnik, “Preferences for fixed and variable food sources: variability in amount and delay,” Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 313–329, 1995.
  36. A. Kacelnik and E. Brito, “Risky choice and Weber's law,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 194, no. 2, pp. 289–298, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  37. D. E. Taneyhill, “Foraging mechanisms and the currency for models of energy maximization in bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus occidentalis),” Entomologia Generalis, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 119–133, 2007.
  38. D. Brink and J. M. J. deWet, “Interpopulation variation in nectar production in Aconitum columbianum (Ranunculaceae),” Oecologia, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–163, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. M. Zimmerman, “Patchiness in the dispersion of nectar resources: probable causes,” Oecologia, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 154–157, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. P. R. Killeen, “Mathematical principles of reinforcement,” Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 105–172, 1994. View at Scopus
  41. A. Kacelnik, J. R. Krebs, and B. Ens, “Foraging in a changing environment: an experiment with starlings (Sturnus vulgaris),” in Quantitative Analyses of Behaviour, M. L. Commons, A. Kacelnik, and S. Shettleworth, Eds., vol. 6 of Foraging, pp. 63–87, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, USA, 1987.
  42. I. Cuthill, P. Haccou, and A. Kacelnik, “Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exploiting patches—responses to long—term changes in travel time,” Behavioral Ecology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 81–89, 1994. View at Scopus
  43. J. H. Marden, “Remote perception of floral nectar by bumblebees,” Oecologia, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 232–240, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Giurfa and J. A. Nuñez, “Honeybees mark with scent and reject recently visited flowers,” Oecologia, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 113–117, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. Goulson, J. W. Chapman, and W. O. H. Hughes, “Discrimination of unrewarding flowers by bees; direct detection of rewards and use of repellent scent marks,” Behavioural Ecology & Sociobiology, vol. 52, pp. 239–246, 2001.
  46. J. E. Cresswell and A. W. Robertson, “Discrimination by pollen—collecting bumblebees among differently rewarding flowers of an alpine wildflower, Campanula rotundifolia (Campanulaceae),” Oikos, vol. 69, pp. 304–308, 1994.
  47. N. Saleh, K. Ohashi, J. D. Thomson, and L. Chittka, “Facultative use of the repellent scent mark in foraging bumblebees: complex vs. simple flowers,” Animal Behaviour, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 847–854, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. N. Saleh, A. G. Scott, G. P. Bryning, and L. Chittka, “Distinguishing signals and cues: bumblebees use general footprints to generate adaptive behavior at flowers and nest,” Arthropod-Plant Interactions, vol. 1, pp. 119–127, 2007.
  49. B. Heinrich, Bumblebee Economics, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1979.
  50. R. R. Sokal and F. J. Rohlf, Biometry, W.H. Freeman, New York, NY, USA, 1981.
  51. T. Keasar, E. Rashkovich, D. Cohen, and A. Shmida, “Bees in two-armed bandit situations: foraging choices and possible decision mechanisms,” Behavioral Ecology, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 757–765, 2002. View at Scopus
  52. S. C. Stearns and P. Schmid-Hempel, “Evolutionary insights should not be wasted,” Oikos, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 118–125, 1987. View at Scopus
  53. A. Kacelnik and I. A. Todd, “Psychological mechanisms and the marginal value theorem: effect of variability in travel time on patch exploitation,” Animal Behaviour, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 313–322, 1992. View at Scopus